Reproduction in Plants

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Reproduction in Plants
2013-01-30 09:23:45
BIO 220

Chapter... Plants?
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  1. Classification of angiosperms and examples of each type?
    • monocot (lilies, grasses, orchids)
    • and dicot (most trees and shrubs)
  2. Veins (monocot/ dicot)
    • M: Generally have parallel veination (veins are the transport tubes in a plant) parallel viens
    • D:                                                               i.      reticular veination
    • 1.      Branched arrangement
  3. Carpals  and peltas
    • M:                                                               i.      3 carpals, 3 petals or multiples of three
    • D:                                                               i.      Four to five carpal petals
  4. Roots in Monocots and Dicots
    • M:                                                               i.      Generally have a fibrous root system
    • 1.      No main root

    • D:                                                               i.      Usually have a taproot system
    • 1.      One main root, which can have lots of little roots coming off of it
  5. Seedlings (cotyledons) of monocots and dicots
    • M:                                                               i.      Embryo has one cotyledon or seedling for embryo to feed on
    •  D:                                                               i.      Embryos have two seedlings or cotyledons
  6. Life span of Monocots and Dicots
    • M: live  a year
    • D: perennial
  7. True or False: 
    Some dicots can have monocot characteristics
    True Not exclusive characteristics
  8. a.      Like animals, angiosperms can multiply by either __ or __.
    sexual or asexual reproduction
  9. Explain sexual
    • 1.      two parents
    • a.      Organ for sexual reproduction is the flower
    • b.      Gametes are pollen for males and ovules for the female that are produced by the male and female flower parts
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      They fuse together in sexual reproduction
    • 1.      Haploid+haploid= diploid
  10. Explain asexual.
    • 1.      one parent reproduces
    • a.      Produces clones and is reproduction by mitosis
    • Uses the asexual parts of the plant, which are referred to as vegetative parts: leaves, stems, and roots
  11. Asexual Reproduction
    • a.      Not every plant can use all of its vegetative parts for asexual reproduction
    •                                                               i.      Some may be able to use one part, such as leaves, stems, or roots
  12. Asexual Reproduction (Leaves)
    • a.      Kalanchoe: common house plant with lots of leaves on stems
    •                                                               i.      if a leaf falls into proper medium, like soil, that leaf will cause a new plant to rise up= reproduction
    • b.      some plants allow their leaves to reproduce asexually and give you new plants
  13. Asexual Reproduction (Stems)
    •                                                               i.      Horizontal, underground stems
    •                                                             ii.      If underground, periodically, the part of the stem will form shoots to give off new plants
    •                                                           iii.      Examples: iris and some grasses
  14. Asexual Reproduction (Stems)
    •                                                               i.      Plants that have enlarged stems that are used for storage of the carbohydrate that the plant makes
    • 1.      Where the plant stores its extra nutrients that it doesn’t need
    •                                                             ii.      If you look at a tuber and leave it hanging around long enough, you have little “eyes” sprouting, called lateral buds
    •                                                           iii.      Potato
  15. Asexual Reproduction (Stems)
    •                                                               i.      Shortened underground stems
    • 1.      Not horizontal; short and sprout with fleshy leaves (usually)
    •                                                             ii.      Tulips, lilies, onions, and daffodils 
  16. Asexual Reproduction (Stems)
    •                                                               i.      Also called runners
    •                                                             ii.      Also horizontal stems, but they are above ground
    •                                                           iii.      Same as rhizomes, but above ground         
    • 1.      They will sprout off every once in a while
    •                                                           iv.      Strawberries
  17. I.                   Asexual Reproduction (Roots)
    • a.      In some cases, roots are capable of producing new plants; instead of the stem forming this lateral bud, called suckers,  it’s the root that forms it
    •                                                               i.      And from that root, each sucker can form new plants
  18. Asexual Reproduction Roots
    • a.      Suckers
    •                                                               i.      Above ground stems that develop from roots
    •                                                             ii.      Raspberries and blackberries
    •                                                           iii.      Runners are stems; suckers are roots
  19. Sexual Reproduction (Flowers)
    Whorl Explanation
    • a.      Flower is arranged in whorls, or layers
    • b.      Four whorls that make up a flower
    •                                                               i.      Outer whorls (from outside to in) are sepals and petals (more inner than sepals)
    •                                                             ii.      After the sepals and petals, the next whorls are the stamens
    • 1.      Male part of plant
    •                                                           iii.      The innermost whorls are the carpals (pistils)
    • 1.      Female part of flower
  20. Innermost Whorl
    • a.      Innermost whorl- CARPELS or PISTILS (female)
    •                                                               i.      Consist of:
    • 1.       a stigma [of carpal]
    • a.      Sticky pad
    • b.      Function: catch the pollen
    • 2.       a style
    • a.      Once pollen is there, then the style is the tube, which leads to the ovary
    • b.      Allow pollen to get to ovary
    • 3.       an ovary with ovules (gametes)
    • a.      Where fertilization takes place
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Where pollen and ovules meet and fuse
    • b.      How many ovules depends on plant
  21. Next whort after Carpels
    • a.      Next whorl out- STAMEN
    •                                                               i.      Male portion of plant
    •                                                             ii.      Consists of:
    • 1.      Anther
    • a.      That portion that produces the pollen, which is the male gamete
    • 2.      Filament
    • a.      The stalk that holds the anther to the flower
  22. Second to outermost whorl
    • a.      Next outer whort- PETALS
    •                                                               i.      Colorful portions of the flower
    •                                                             ii.      Function: lure insects, birds, other organisms, to the flower for pollination 
  23. Outermost whorl
    • a.      Outermost- SEPALS
    •                                                               i.      Generally green
    •                                                             ii.      Coverings or protections of flowers before they’re open
    •                                                           iii.      Protect the bud (flower before it’s opened)
    • 1.      When the flower opens up, the sepals may turn brown
    •                                                           iv.      No function once opened up; they’ve done their job
  24. True or False:
    Not all flowrs have all four whorls
  25. If they have all four, __
    •                                                               i.      they are called complete flowers
    • 1.      Not all complete flowers are self-fertilizing; they need cross-fertilization
  26. If missing whorls
    •                                                               i.      Incomplete means its missing one or more whorls
    • Usually carpals or stamens
  27. Perfect and Imperfect
    •                                                               i.      Perfect: if it has both carpals (pistils) and stamens
    •                                                             ii.      Imperfect: has either carpals (pistils) or stamens, but not both
  28. After fertilization, what occurs.
    • a.      After fertilization, a fruit develops, which is the part of the flowering plant that comes generally from the ovary
    •                                                               i.      Mature, ripened ovaries
    • 1.      Can be one ovary or multiple ovaries depending on the fruit
  29. a.      In some cases, there are fruits that use __ in addition to __, but in most cases the fruits are __
    • accessory tissues
    • ovaries
    • mature, ripened ovaries
  30. Classifications of Fruit (solely from Ovary)

    Simple Fruit
    •                                                               i.      One that develops from one ovary of one flower
    •                                                             ii.      Peaches, plums, avocados
    •                                                           iii.      Usually have one big seed in them
  31. Classifications of Fruit (solely from Ovary)
    Aggregate Fruit
    •                                                               i.      Develop from multiple ovaries (multiple carpals) of one flower
    • Raspberries 
  32. Classifications of Fruit (solely from Ovary)
    •                                                               i.      Ovary [or ovaries] plus other plant tissue that’s  used in forming the fruit
    •                                                             ii.      Strawberries 
  33. Classifications of Fruit (solely from Ovary)
    •                                                               i.      Develop from multiple ovaries(carpals) of multiple flowers
    • Pineapples 
  34. a.      After the fruit develops, the __are the seeds of that fruit
                                                                  i.      Under favorable conditions, the seeds will b__
    • embryos
    • e released into atmosphere, will germinate and become plants