Psychology 110

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courtneydurrett
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196605
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Psychology 110
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2013-01-30 11:43:43
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Exam Review
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Study questions for Exam Chapters 1-3
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  1. What are the 3 stages of prenatal development?
    • 1. Germinal
    • 2. Embryonic
    • 3. Fetal
  2. 2 weeks after conception for zygote to meet sperm and implant itself into womb
    Germinal
  3. After successful implantation; weeks 2-8
    Embryonic
  4. Weeks 9-birth
    Fetal
  5. Arms, legs, fingers, toes; heartbeat develops; sexual differentiation
    Embryonic
  6. Bones and muscles; movement begins; lungs mature; quadruples in size; rapid brain and physical growth from 6 months-birth
    Fetal
  7. Enviromental agents that potentially damage the developing embryo
    Teratogens
  8. When is an embryo/fetus most susceptible to teratogens?
    Fetal stage
  9. A natural defense against the influence of teratogens
    Morning Sickness
  10. What happens to neurons during the first 2 years of life?
    Neurons increase production, branch out, and become pruned
  11. First 2 yrs are crucial for this development
    During this time, neurons exist but many changes are still taking place
    Plasticity Principle
  12. Caused by genetic code, but environment can accelerate or delay the point when changes start to occur
    Sexual Maturation
  13. What kinds of memory decline and do not decline with age?
    • Ability to RECALL recent events declines
    • Ability to RECOGNIZE does not
  14. How did Piaget suggest people organize the world?
    People construct mental models of the world (called schemata), the use these schemata to guide and interpret experiences
  15. Process through which we fit new experiences into our existing schemata
    Assimilation
  16. "A child has a cat, and sees the neighbors bunny. The bunny is small and furry like a cat, so the child assumes the bunny is a cat" is an example of?
    Assimilation
  17. Process through which we change or modify existing schemata to accommodate new experiences
    Accommodation
  18. What are Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development?
    • 1. Sensorimotor Period
    • 2. Preoperational Period
    • 3. Concrete Operational Period
    • 4. Formal Operational Period
  19. Which of Piaget's 4 stages of development:
    -Birth-2 yrs
    -Revolves around infant's sensory and motor abilities
    -Survival Reflexes
    Sensorimotor Period
  20. Which of Piaget's 4 stages of development:
    -2 to 7 yrs
    -No longer has difficulty thinking abt absent objects
    -Imagination
    Preoperational Period
  21. Which of Piaget's 4 stages of development:
    -7 to 11 years
    -acquire mental abilities
    -Fewer conversation problems
    -Logical thought
    -Simple math and reasoning
    -Mental operations are limited to concrete
    Concrete Operational
  22. Which of Piaget's 4 stages of development:
    -11 to adulthood
    -Can consider hypothetical outcomes
    -Logical deductions
    -Systematic strategies
    -Abstract thinking
    Formal Operational
  23. What is the major problem with a stage view of development?
    • Not all kids develop at the same rate;
    • Development should actually be viewed as a continual change and adaptation process that is much slower then led on
  24. What is the major criticism of Kohlberg's theory of moral development?
    Ties concepts of morality to abstract code of justice
  25. What evidence suggests infants desire and need comfort?
    Harlow Monkey Experiment
  26. General level of emotional reactivity
    Temperament
  27. When parent is present, child is happy and eager to explore; When stressful situation occurs, becomes clingy; If mother leaves, the baby will cry but calms down upon return
    Secure Attachment
  28. Wary of situation when mom is present; will cry when she leaves but treat her with ambivalence (general bitchiness) upon return
    Resistant
  29. No attachment to mother in situation; indifferent and unresponsive to situations when she leaves and returns
    Avoidant
  30. Inconsistent- May show signs of multiple types and could be fearful of mother
    Disorganized/Disoriented
  31. What did Erickson believe shaped a person's sense of self?
    Psychological crises that we confront at characteristic stages of development
  32. What are the 4 goals of psychology?
    • 1. to describe behavior
    • 2. to predict behavior
    • 3. to explain behavior
    • 4. to control or change behavior
  33. What are the 5 steps of the scientific method?
    • 1. Define and describe issue to be studied
    • 2. Form a testable hypothesis
    • 3. Choose appropriate research strategy
    • 4. Conduct the study to test your hypothesis
    • 5. Analyze the data to support or reject your hypothesis
  34. Makes a specific set of predictions about the relationships among variables and addresses 2 goals of pysch- description & prediction
    Predictive Hypothesis
  35. Details how one variable will influence another variable
    Causal Hypothesis
  36. Can only be tested when it is possible to manipulate the variables in the study and see how they affect one another
    Causal Hypothesis
  37. Research studies that are conducted in the environment in which the behavior typically occurs
    Naturalistic Observations
  38. What is one problem with naturalistic observation?
    Researchers do not control events, so they can not pinpoint the causes of behavior; used only to describe and predict
  39. In depth observation of one subject
    Case studies
  40. What is the main disadvantage of case study?
    Lacks generalizability 
  41. To test the relationship between 2 or more variables 
    Correlational Studies
  42. What do correlational studies not allow researchers to do?
    Make cause and effect conclusions
  43. What is the 3rd variable problem with correlational studies?
    You can tell the relationship between 2 variables, but you cannot truly tell the cause and effect ideas from them
  44. What are the 2 main features of an experiment?
    • 1. The variables in the study are controlled or manipulated
    • 2. Participants are randomly assigned to the conditions of the study
  45. Variable that is manipulated and the cause for the experiment
    Independent Variable
  46. Variable that is the effect of the experiment
    Dependent Variable
  47. Experiment where researachers manipulate the independent variable and set the conditions of the experiment to be the same for both groups
    Quasi-Experiment
  48. What is an advantage to using experiments?
    Only research method that allows us to determine cause and effect relationships
  49. An active system that receives, stores, organizes, alters, and recovers info
    Memory
  50. 3 Stages of Memory
    • 1. Encoding
    • 2. Storage
    • 3. Retrieval
  51. Silently repeating Short Term Memory
    Maintenance Rehearsal
  52. Linking new info to memories that are already in LTM
    Elaborative Rehearsal
  53. Facilitating the retrieval of an implicit memory by using cues to activate hidden memories
    Priming
  54. A memory that a person does not know exists; a memory that is retrieved unconsciously 
    Implicit Memories
  55. A memory that a person is aware of having; A memory that is consciously retrieved 
    Explicit Memories
  56. Known as curve of forgetting; Shows amount of info remembered after varying lengths of time
    Ebbinghaus Curve
  57. Motivated forgetting; Painful, threatening, or embarrassing memories are held out of consciousness
    Repression
  58. Active, conscious attempt to put something out of mind
    Suppression

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