Lesson 7 Red Wine

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  1. The most important step in red wine production for determining the style of a wine is ________.
    Management of the extraction during fermentation
  2. What wine component protects red wines during the longer aging periods that allow them to develop complex bouquets?
  3. Name two grape varieties in French origin and three from Italy that are used to make red varietal table wines in California?
    • France: Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon
    • Italy: Zinfandel, Barbera, Grignolino and Sangiovese
  4. Its inherent qualities make Pinot Noir a good candidate for Blanc de Noirs wine production.
  5. Which red wine grape is preferred when grown in Region I?
    Pinot Noir
  6. What are the preferred viticultural regions for most red wine grapes?
    Regions II and III
  7. a: In light of recent sensory research in California, which wine would be the most likely to have cherry, fresh berry, berry jam, and spicy characters?

    b: Which wine would study the predict to have more vegetal, leather, and smoke/tar aromas and less cherry, fresh berry, berry jam and spicy character?

    c: Which wine would the study not be able to make any prediction about?
    • a: Buena Vista because its a Pinot Noir from the Carneros district.
    • b: Inglenook's Napa Pinot Noir
    • c: Monterey County Pinot Noir
  8. Cooler growing conditions produce red wines with more pleasing colors because their juices are of a stronger acidity that is lower in pH than hot region juices.
  9. ONe thing a grower or winemaker does not have to worry about in Pinot Noir production is using the right clone.
    False, Pinot Noir is very mutable and there may be as many as 150 different clones used in Burgundy, France
  10. In general, the results of a canopy management studies for Cabernet Sauvignon have shown results like those for Sauvignon Blanc.
  11. What soil conditions in the Napa area were found in preliminary studies to be associated with more cherry or berry flavors in Cabernet Sauvignon wines?
    Older, typically hillside soils with a higher percentage of gravel and less ability to hold water were correlated with smaller crops and fruitier wine flavors.
  12. In California red grapes for varietal table wine making are harvested at higher "degrees Brix" and lower total acids than are white grapes for varietal table wine making.
  13. The juice of Zinfandel and most other red wine grapes is _________.
  14. During red wine fermentation the _______ on the fermenting must be kept wet by "punching down" or "pumping over" in order to prevent the growth of undesirable microorganisms and to promote ________ from the skins.
    cap; extraction from the skins
  15. Pumping over circulates about 1% of the volume of juice over the solid on the top of the fermentation about once a week.
    False, from 10-100% of the juice will be sprayed over the cap one to three times a day
  16. Red wines often benefit from some exposure to air after fermentation and during barrel aging.
  17. The longer the extraction goes on during fermentation, the more varietal, flavor, color, and tannins from the skins end up in the juice.
  18. The average maceration time for California Napa Gamay is about four days and for Cabernet Sauvignon is 7-8 days. This means that the average ______ _______ is intended for more aging than the average ______ ______.
    Cabernet Sauvignon for longer aging than Napa Gamay
  19. Pinot Noir has naturally low concentrations of lighter pigments and is low in tannins, so California winemakers commonly collect the stems at the crusher and add them to the Pinot Noir fermentations to produce premium wines.
    False, winemakers who tried this found that peppery, green, "stemmy" flavors can result in the wines.
  20. One simple, straightforward rule that can be stated for red table wine making is that the longer the skins are in contact with the wine, the harsher and more bitter and more astringent the wine will be.
    False, because an extended maceration of Cabernet Sauvignon can produce a wine with softer tannins.
  21. Red wine fermentations are conducted at temperatures in the range ____ degrees Fahrenheit.
  22. The alcoholic fermentation in red wine production is ______ than for white wine production.
    Shorter, hotter, messier
  23. The malolactic fermentation is both more common and more crucial in premium red table wine production than in premium white table wine production.
  24. Why is producing cold stability immediately after fermentation not a concern for many red wines?
    Because they will age through one or two winters at the winery before bottling the cooling that occurs will often cause tartrate crystals to precipitate and tannins will react with and remove the heat unstable proteins.
  25. The amount of tannin in a red wine can be reduced by adding _____ to the wine which removes tannin.
    gelatin (egg whites sometimes)
  26. Which red wine is most likely to be aged in French Oak?
    Pinot Noir
  27. How would a wine be aged in barrels to minimize its exposure to air?
    The barrels would be sealed tight, rotated 30 degrees to wet the bung and tighten the seal, and not opened until the aging was complete.
  28. Refer to the Kendall-Jackson CARDINALE label. What grape varieties do you expect have been blended to make this wine?
    Cardinale is a red Meritage wine. This means that Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, and Merlot are the most likely to have been used. 
  29. Pinot Noir is less likely to be blended with other red wines.
  30. Which variety is blended with Cabernet Sauvignon to "soften" its tannins?
  31. California wineries age their red wines _______ months in the bottle before releasing them.
    One half month to 48 months
  32. What factors are important for slower bottle aging?
    Higher tannins, lower pH, lower storage temps, more uniform temps, darkness, and larger bottles.
  33. On the average, the overall process of making red wines from grape to bottle takes longer than the overall process of making white wines.
  34. Intensely fruity red wines can be produced by creating an anaerobic environment that modifies the metabolism of the grape cells so that they form alcohol without the need for yeasts. This process is called __________.
    Carbonic maceration
  35. The conventional, yeast catalyzed alcoholic fermentation plays no role in the carbonic maceration method of winemaking.
  36. In the carbonic method of winemaking, free run juice is often used for higher quality wines than press run juice.
    False, press juice is better because comes from inside grapes
  37. Pinot Noir wines are fermented at the lowest temps for red table wines, 60-65 degrees F.
    False, 80-90 degrees F
  38. Red wines made up about ______% of the US wine market during the 1980's.
  39. What do carbonic maceration and methode champenoise have in common?
    Both winemaking techniques from France and both start with uncrushed, whole grape clusters, and absolute requirement for carbonic maceration and a very common practice for methode champenoise.
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Lesson 7 Red Wine

Red Wine
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