Cell structure and function

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yourmomhaslice
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196640
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Cell structure and function
Updated:
2013-01-31 00:54:30
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Test Bio 102
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Lecture 5 on cell structure and function
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  1. Cell
    Basic unit of life
  2. Basic unit of life
    Cell
  3. Two types of cells
    Prokaryotes Eukaryotes
  4. What do all cells contain?
    • DNA
    • Ribosomes
    • plasma membrane
  5. Prokaryotic cells
    • •DNA (chromosome) NOT in membrane
    • bound nucleus

    •2 domains (types)

    –Bacteria

    –Archaea

    •Small compared to eukaryotic cells
  6. •DNA (chromosome) NOT in membrane bound nucleus
    •2 domains (types)–Bacteria–Archaea
    •Small compared to eukaryotic cells
    Prokaryotic cell
  7. Nucleoid region
    contains DNA / Chromosomes
  8. Plasmids
    small circular DNA Molecules
  9. Cell wall
    Tough outer coating
  10. Flagellum
    motility (allows for movement)
  11. Prokaryotic cell structure
  12. Eukaryotic Cell
    •DNA in membrane bound nucleus

    •Larger than prokaryotic cells

    •Contain specialized membrane bound organelles

    •Types: animal, plant, fungus, protist
  13. •DNA in membrane bound nucleus

    •Larger than other cell type

    •Contain specialized membrane bound organelles

    •Types: animal, plant, fungus, protist
    Eukaryotic cell
  14. Nucleus
    Contains DNA
  15. Located in center of cell and contains DNA
    Nucleus
  16. Nuclear Envelope
    double membrane surrounding nucleus
  17. double
    membrane surrounding nucleus
    Nuclear envelope
  18. Nucleolus
    Located in nucleus

    •site of ribosome assembly
  19. •site of ribosome assembly
    located in nucleus
    Nucleolus
  20. Two domains of prokaryotic cells
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea (most live in extreme conditions)
  21. Bacteria, Archaea
    Two domains of prokaryotic cells
  22. Rough endoplasmic Reticulum
    • makes membrane proteins and
    • secreted proteins (ie hormones)
    • Rough because of ribosomes
  23. makes membrane proteins and secreted proteins (ie hormones) Rough because of ribosomes.
    Rough endoplasmic reticulum
  24. Ribosomes
    A minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells.
  25. A minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. Also what makes rough endoplasmic reticulum rough.
    Ribosomes
  26. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Makes phospholipids and fatty acids There are no ribosomes present making it smoother.
  27. Makes phospholipids and fatty acids
    Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
  28. What is the difference between Smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulums?
    Smooth doesn't contain ribosomes and makes fatty acids and phospholipds. Rough makes proteins and has ribosomes.
  29. Golgi Apparatus
    • •processing and sorting of membrane
    • proteins and secreted proteins.
  30. •processing and sorting of membrane
    proteins and secreted proteins
    Golgi Apparatus
  31. Cisternae
    • •stacked flat membranous sacs
  32. •stacked flat membranous sacs
    Cisternae
  33. Vesicles
    • small membrane bound structures
    • used for transport
  34. small membrane bound structures
    used for transport
    Vesicles
  35. Lysosome
    • •degradation of proteins,
    • carbohydrates, fats, and “old” organelles

    • •Contains digestive
    • enzymes
  36. • conducts degradation of proteins,carbohydrates, fats, and “old” organelles•Contains digestive enzymes
    Lysosomes
  37. VACUOLE
    • –water
    • and/or ion storage

    • –degradation
    • of molecules



    •Most obvious in plants
  38. –water
    and/or ion storage

    –degradation
    of molecules

    •Most obvious in plants
    VACUOLE
  39. Mitochondrion
    • •ATP (energy) production
    • •2 membranes: inner and outer
  40. Cristae
    • : folds of the inner membrane
  41. Matrix:
    • •solution inside the cristae
  42. Chloroplast
    • Found only in plants. Does photsynthesis (Sugar production)
    • has 2 membranes
  43. Parts found in chloroplast
    • thylakoids
    • Granum
    • Stroma
  44. Thylakoids
    Membrane bound vesicles containing chlorophyll.
  45. Granum
    • Stack of thylakoids
  46. Stroma
    • Fluid outside of thylakoids
  47. Cytoskeleton
    • Provides cell shape and structure
    • Allows for cell movement
    • transports organelles, vesicles, other junk, within the cell
  48. 3 types of cytoskeleton
    Microfilaments =actin filaments

    Intermediate filaments

    • Microtubules
  49. Provides cell shape and structureAllows for cell movementtransports organelles, vesicles, other junk, within the cell
    Cytoskeleton
  50. Molecular Motors
    • •movement in combination with cytoskeleton
    • EXAMPLE:
    • –dynein + microtubules in sperm tail and respiratory cilia
  51. Cilia / flagella
    • hair like projections on the cell surface
    • they move the cell or move fluids across the cell surface. (driven by microtubules and motors)
  52. hair like projections on the cell surface that move the cell or fluids across the cell.
    Flagella / cilia
  53. Cell wall
    Serves as a protective layer and and provides cell shape. Only found in plants.
  54. Serves as a protective layer and and provides cell shape. Only found in plants.
    Cell wall

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