Med Term 1

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jelliott
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196646
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Med Term 1
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2013-02-20 08:26:16
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Med Term
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  1. List the layers of the skin. (Starting on the outside)
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
    • Subcutaneous Layer
  2. Where do new skin cell grow?
    Basal Layer of the Epidermis
  3. What produces the black pigment that gives skin its color?
    Melanocytes in the Epidermis
  4. What layer of the skin contains the blood vessels, glands and nerves?
    Dermis
  5. What is the four parts of a medical term?
    • Word Root
    • Prefix
    • Suffix
    • Combining Vowel
  6. What is a cicatrix?
    (SICK-ah-trix)
    A Scar
  7. What are the four types of bones?
    • Long
    • Short
    • Flat
    • Irregular
  8. What are the three types of muscle?
    • Smooth (Visceral) - Involuntary
    • Skeletal (Striated) - Voluntary
    • Cardiac - Involuntary
  9. What is the end of a bone called?
    Epiphysis
  10. What is the shaft of a bone called?
    Diaphysis
  11. What is fibromyalgia?
    A widespread aching pain that affects muscle and soft tissue.
  12. What is atrophy?
    Muscle wasting
  13. What is gout?
    An inflammatory problem in joints caused by excessive uric acid.
  14. What is a greenstick Fx?
    A Fx in which there is an incomplete break; one side of the bone is broken and the other side is bent.  Commonly found in children.
  15. What is a compound (open) Fx?
    A Fx where the bone has broken through the skin.
  16. What is a closed (simple) Fx?
    A Fx where the bone did not break through the skin.
  17. Name and explain the three conditions that can be caused by vitamin D and Ca+ deficiency.
    • Rickets - Bone deformity (Causes bow leg)
    • Osteomalicia - Softening of the bones
    • Osteoporosis - Loss of density or mass in the bone and tooth decay
  18. What is kyphosis?
    • Excessive posterior thoracic curvature
    • Also called hunchback
  19. What is lordosis?
    • Excessive anterior lumbar curvature
    • Also called swayback
  20. What is scoliosis?
    a lateral curvature of the spine
  21. What is a Decubitus Ulcer?
    • An open sore caused by pressure over bony prominences.
    • Also know as a bedsore or pressure sore
  22. What is Kaposi's Sarcoma?
    Skin CA frequently seen in AIDS pt.  Consist of brownish-purple papules.
  23. What is Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)?
    CA of the epidermis layer of the skin, often beings as a sore that does not heal.
  24. What is a Malignant Melanoma (MM)?
    Skin CA caused by an uncontrolled growth of melanocytes.
  25. What is Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)?
    CA tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis.  Caused by sun-exposure.
  26. What is a Keloid?
    A raised and thickened hypertrophic scar.
  27. What is a nevus?
    A mole
  28. What is urticaria?
    (er-tih-KAY-ree-ah)
    Hives
  29. Describe a 1st degree burn.
    A superficial burn of the epidermis layer characterized by reddening of the skin.
  30. Describe a 2nd degree burn.
    A partial thickness burn that involves both the epidermis and the dermis layers and is characterized by blisters over the affected area.
  31. Describe a 3rd degree burn.
    A full thickness burn that involves all layers of the skin and is characterized by charring.
  32. What is melanin?
    (MEL-ah-nin)
    The black pigment that gives skin its color.
  33. What is petechiae?
    (peh-TEE-kee-eye)
    Pinpoint hemorrhages under the skin.
  34. What is pruritus?
    (proo-RIGH-tus)
    Severe itching
  35. What is a fissure?
    (FISH-er)
    A crack-like groove on the skin.
  36. Name and describe the three layers of the heart. (Start inside and move out)
    • Endocardium - Inner layer that lines the chambers
    • Myocardium - Thick muscular layer
    • Epicardium - Outer layer
  37. What is the pericardium?
    The double walled outer sac around the heart.
  38. What is arteriosclerosis?
    (ar-tee-ree-oh-skleh-ROH-sis)
    Thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of the arteries.
  39. What is atherosclerosis?
    (ath-er-oh-skleh-ROH-sis)
    The most common form of arteriosclerosis caused by formation of yellowish plaque of cholesterol on the inner walls of the arteries.
  40. What is Blood Pressure?
    The pressure exerted against the walls of a blood vessel.
  41. What is a pulse?
    The expansion and contraction of blood as it moves through an artery.
  42. What is an aneurysm?
    Weakness in the wall of an artery resulting in localized widening of the artery.
  43. What is a thrombus?
    A blood clot forming within a blood vessel.
  44. What is a embolus?
    The obstruction of a blood vessel by a clot that has broken off from a thrombus somewhere else in the body and traveled to the point of obstruction.
  45. What is an arrhythmia?
    An irregular heartbeat.
  46. What is fibrillation?
    An abnormal quivering or contraction of heart fibers.
  47. What is ischemia?
    A lack of blood flow
  48. What is a myocardial infarction?
    A heart attack; it is caused by a partial or complete occlusion of one or more coronary arteries.
  49. What is cardiac enzymes?
    A blood test to determine the level of enzymes specific to heart muscles in the blood; used to determine damage to heart muscle.
  50. What is angina pectoris?
    A condition of severe pain with a sensation of constriction or pressure around the heart; caused by myocardial ischemia.
  51. What is Congestive Heart Failure?
    A pathologic condition  of the heart in which there is a reduced outflow of blood from the affected ventricle.
  52. What are palpitations?
    Racing, pounding heartbeats
  53. What is auscultation?
    The process of listening to the sounds within the body by using a stethoscope.
  54. Name the four components of blood and their roles.
    • Plasma - Carries the formed elements.
    • Erythroctes (RBC) - O2/CO2 Transport.
    • Leukocytes (WBC) - Provide protection.
    • Thrombocytes (Platelets) - Clotting factor.
  55. What is phagocytosis?
    The ability to ingest and digest bacteria.
  56. What is hemostasis?
    The body's ability to stop bleeding.
  57. What is anemia?
    A low RBC count or a low hemoglobin.
  58. What is polycythemia vera?
    The production of to many RBC.
  59. What is leukemia?
    A CA of the bone marrow that affects the formation of WBC.
  60. What is septicemia?
    Bacteria or their toxins in the blood stream.
  61. What is hemophilia?
    A hereditary blood disease that causes prolonged clotting time.
  62. What is pancytopenia?
    A decrease in all cells.
  63. What is a antigen-antibody test?
    A blood type test.
  64. What is agglutination?
    Clumping
  65. What is type and crossmatch?
    A test to determine blood type and donor compatibility.
  66. What is a autologous transfusion?
    Donating and storing ones own blood for future use.
  67. What is the universal donor?  recipient?
    • Type O
    • Type AB
  68. Name the four concentrated lymph node sites.
    • Axillary (Armpit)
    • Cervical (Neck)
    • Inguinal (Groin)
    • Mediastinal (Center of chest)
  69. What is immunity?
    The bodys ability to defend itself against pathogens.
  70. What is natural immunity?
    • Genetic immunity that does not require prior exposure to a pathogen. 
    • Ex: WBC in the body.
  71. What is acquired immunity?
    The bodys response to a specific pathogen.
  72. What is passive acquired immunity?
    • Immunity established when a person receives protective substances produced by another human or animal.
    • Ex: Maternal antibodies
  73. What is active acquired immunity?
    Immunity that develops following direct exposure to a pathogen.
  74. What is idiopathic?
    unknown cause
  75. What is hematopoiesis?
    (hee-mah-toh-poy-EE-sis)
    The production of blood cells.
  76. What does Epstein-Barr virus cause?
    • mononucleosis
    • (mon-oh-nook-lee-OH-sis)
  77. What is the pleura?
    The double walled membrane surrounding the lungs.
  78. What is the diaphragm?
    Large, dome-shaped muscle used for breathing, it separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.
  79. What is the epiglottis?
    A leaf shaped cartilaginous tissue that protects the trachea from foreign substances.
  80. What is thoracentesis?
    Puncturing the chest wall to withdraw fluid.
  81. What is croup?
    An acute respiratory condition characterized by a braking type cough.  Most commonly seen in children.
  82. What is sputum?
    Phlegm that has been coughed up from the bronchioles.
  83. What is pulmonary edema?
    Fluid in the lungs.
  84. What is a pulmonary embolism?
    A clot in the lungs.
  85. What does patent mean?
    Open, clear
  86. What is empyema?
    Pus in the pleural space.
  87. What is emphysema?
    Destruction in the walls of the alveoli.
  88. What is orthopnea?
    Sitting up straight to breath better.
  89. What is dyspnea?
    Difficulty breathing
  90. What is apnea?
    Not breathing
  91. What is percussion?
    Tapping on the surface with fingers to detect the underlying condition.
  92. What is anoxia?
    No oxygen
  93. What is ABG?
    Arterial Blood Gas
  94. What is atelectasis?
    Collapsed alveoli (lung)
  95. What is COPD
    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - Lungs have a diminished capacity for inhalation and exhalation.
  96. What two respiratory conditions fall under COPD?
    • Chronic Bronchitis
    • Emphysema
  97. What is bordetella pertussis?
    Whooping Cough
  98. What is epitaxis?
    nose bleed
  99. What is rales?
    Crackling sounds in the lungs that indicates fluid in the lungs.
  100. What is hypoxemia?
    Low oxygen levels in the blood

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