In the science of Chemistry, one seeks to understand:
The structure and properties of matter
List, in order, the steps of teh scientific method
3. Use experimentation to test one hypothesis/prediction
What is included in the realm of science?
Whatever is testable by scientific method
A number of similar observations generalized into a brief statement summarizing past observations and predicting new ones defines a/an___________; a model that explains the underlying reasons for observations defines a/an_________________.
Scientific law; scientifc theory
A tentative interpretation or explanation of the observations
Highly controlled observations designed to validat or invalidate hypothesis
A brief statement that synthesizes past observations and predicts future ones
A measure of space
1 meter=______ yards
1 foot =_________cm
1 kilogram =______pounds (lb)
1 ounce (oz)=________grams
1 liter(L)=_____ mililiters (mL)
1 liter (L)=_______cubic centimeters
1 liter (L)_______quarts
1 US gallon (gal)=______liters (L)
Anything that occupies space and has mass
Submicroscopic particles that are the fundamental building blocks of matter
Two or more atoms joined to one another is specific geometric arrangements
Atoms or molecules arrange in geometric patterns with long-range repeating order
Atoms or molecules that do not have long-range order
what is a pure substance?
Composed of only one type of atom or molecule
What is a mixture?
Matter that is composed or two or more different types of atoms or moelcules combined in variable proportions
What is an element?
A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
What is a compound?
A substance composed of two or more elements in fixed definite proportions
What is a heterogeneous mixture?
such as oil and water, the composition varies from one region to another
What is a homogeneous mixture?
such as salt water or sweetened tea, the compostion is the same throughout
What is physical property?
A substance displays without changing its composition
What is chemical property?
a substance displays only through changing its composition
What is physical change?
matter changes its appearance but not its compostion
What is chemical change?
matter changes its compostion
for example copper turns green upon continues exposure to air because it reacts with gases in the air to form new compounds
A form of matter in which particles are arranged in a repeating order is a/an_______
Which state of matter has atomic spacing that is closes and has a definite shape?
Which state of matter has atomic spacing that is very far apart and has no definite shape?
Which type of energy is energy in motion?
kinetic, which inclueds electrical, thermal, radiant, and mechanical
If a particular process is endothermic, the reverse process must be a(n) _______process
If a solid piece of shiny sodium metal is exposed to chlorine gas, alarge amount of hear is released and the white sodium chloride (table salt) forms. This process was (endothermic or exothermic)
ONe-twelth the mass of a carbon atom containing six protons and six neutrons defines a(n)_______
atomic mass unit (amu)
Where are metals located in the periodic table?
Where are non-metals located in the periodic table?
What elements are know as metalloids?
B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, At
Group IA elements are also known as?
Group VIIA elements are also known as
Group VIIIA elements are also known as
Group IIA elements are known as
alkaline earth metals
When atoms gain or lose electrons, they form_______
A positively charged atom is a(n)_______ and forms when atoms _________electrons
A negatively charged atom is a(n)_______ and forms when atoms __________electrons
Atoms of the same element that have different number of neutrons are known as
The non-placeholding digits in a measurement are called_________