Intro to Chemistry

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Author:
Damnwell
ID:
196655
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Intro to Chemistry
Updated:
2013-01-30 18:30:55
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Chemistry
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Chapters 1-4
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  1. In the science of Chemistry, one seeks to understand:
    The structure and properties of matter
  2. List, in order, the steps of teh scientific method
    • 1. Observe
    • 2. Hypothesize/Predict
    • 3. Use experimentation to test one hypothesis/prediction
    • 4. Summarize/generalize
  3. What is included in the realm of science?
    Whatever is testable by scientific method
  4. A number of similar observations generalized into a brief statement summarizing past observations and predicting new ones defines a/an___________; a model that explains the underlying reasons for observations defines a/an_________________.
    Scientific law; scientifc theory
  5. A tentative interpretation or explanation of the observations
    Hypothesis
  6. Highly controlled observations designed to validat or invalidate hypothesis
    Experiments
  7. A brief statement that synthesizes past observations and predicts future ones
    scientific law
  8. A measure of space
    volume
  9. 1 kilometer=______mile
    0.6214
  10. 1 meter=________inches
    39.37
  11. 1 meter=______ yards
    1.094
  12. 1 foot =_________cm
  13. 30.48
  14. 1 inch=_______cm
    2.54
  15. 1 kilogram =______pounds (lb)
    2.205
  16. 1 lb=_____grams
    453.59
  17. 1 ounce (oz)=________grams
    28.35
  18. 1 liter(L)=_____ mililiters (mL)
    1000
  19. 1 liter (L)=_______cubic centimeters
    1000
  20. 1 liter (L)_______quarts
    1.057
  21. 1 US gallon (gal)=______liters (L)
    3.785
  22. Anything that occupies space and has mass
    Matter
  23. Submicroscopic particles that are the fundamental building blocks of matter
    atoms
  24. Two or more atoms joined to one another is specific geometric arrangements
    Molecules
  25. Atoms or molecules arrange in geometric patterns with long-range repeating order
    Crystalline
  26. Atoms or molecules that do not have long-range order
    Amorphous
  27. what is a pure substance?
    Composed of only one type of atom or molecule
  28. What is a mixture?
    Matter that is composed or two or more different types of atoms or moelcules combined in variable proportions
  29. What is an element?
    A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
  30. What is a compound?
    A substance composed of two or more elements in fixed definite proportions
  31. What is a heterogeneous mixture?
    such as oil and water, the composition varies from one region to another
  32. What is a homogeneous mixture?
    such as salt water or sweetened tea, the compostion is the same throughout
  33. What is physical property?
    A substance displays without changing its composition
  34. What is chemical property?
    a substance displays only through changing its composition
  35. What is physical change?
    • matter changes its appearance but not its compostion
    • ice-water-steam
  36. What is chemical change?
    matter changes its compostion

    for example copper turns green upon continues exposure to air because it reacts with gases in the air to form new compounds
  37. A form of matter in which particles are arranged in a repeating order is a/an_______
    Amorphous solid
  38. Which state of matter has atomic spacing that is closes and has a definite shape?
    Liquid
  39. Which state of matter has atomic spacing that is very far apart and has no definite shape?
    Gas
  40. Which type of energy is energy in motion?
    kinetic, which inclueds electrical, thermal, radiant, and mechanical
  41. If a particular process is endothermic, the reverse process must be a(n) _______process
    exothermic
  42. If a solid piece of shiny sodium metal is exposed to chlorine gas, alarge amount of hear is released and the white sodium chloride (table salt) forms. This process was (endothermic or exothermic)
    Exothermic
  43. ONe-twelth the mass of a carbon atom containing six protons and six neutrons defines a(n)_______
    atomic mass unit (amu)
  44. Where are metals located in the periodic table?
    Left-hand side
  45. Where are non-metals located in the periodic table?
    noble gases
  46. What elements are know as metalloids?
    B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, At
  47. Group IA elements are also known as?
    Alkali metals
  48. Group VIIA elements are also known as
    halogens
  49. Group VIIIA elements are also known as
    noble gases
  50. Group IIA elements are known as
    alkaline earth metals
  51. When atoms gain or lose electrons, they form_______
    ions
  52. A positively charged atom is a(n)_______ and forms when atoms _________electrons
    cation, lose
  53. A negatively charged atom is a(n)_______ and forms when atoms __________electrons
    anion, gain
  54. Atoms of the same element that have different number of neutrons are known as
    isotopes
  55. The non-placeholding digits in a measurement are called_________
    significan figures
  56. mega-
    • 1,000,000 million
    • mega million 10^6
  57. kilo-
    • 1,000 thousand
    • 10^3
  58. deci-
    • 0.10 decade
    • 10^-1
  59. centi-
    • 0.001 hundredth
    • century
    • 10^-2
  60. milli-
    • 0.0001 thousanth
    • 10^-3
  61. micro-
    • 0.000001
    • 10^-6
  62. nano-
    • 0.000000001
    • 10^-9
  63. What is the formula for density?
    D=M/V
  64. pico-
    10^-12
  65. femto-
    10^-15

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