Ochem #3

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Author:
Nightsurfer
ID:
19667
Filename:
Ochem #3
Updated:
2010-05-17 19:05:26
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Organic Chemistry
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Description:
Esters, amine/amide, fat, dna/rna, amino acids
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  1. General form of Esters
    • O
    • R-C-OR O is double bonded
  2. How do you name Esters
    -yl and -anoate endings
  3. Formate general structure
    R-O-CH=O
  4. Esterfication: acid
    R-(C=O)-OH + OH-R <----->
    H-OH + R-(C=O)-OR + H2O
  5. Hydrolysis of an ester
    • acid
    • R-(C=O)-OR + H2O <------> R-(C=O)-OH + R-OH
  6. Hydrolysis of an anhydride
    R-(C=O)-O-(C=O)-R + H2O <----> R-(C=O)-OH (2)
  7. NaOH
    R-(C=O)-OR + H2O ----->
    R-(C=O)-ONa + H2O + R-OH
  8. Saponification
    Making soap from a salt of a fatty acid
  9. NaOH
    R-(C=O)-OR + H20 ----->
    R-(C=O)- ONa + R-OH + H2O
  10. Lipids are polar or non polar?
    nonpolar
  11. Hydrolyzable lipids
    able to be broken apart with water have ester groups
  12. non hydrolyzable do not have what group?
    ester
  13. what lipids are hydrolyzable?
    Triglycerides and glrycerol (phospholipids)
  14. What lipids are Non-hydrolyzable?
    Steroids
  15. Triglycerides do or do not have branches
    no branches
  16. acid
    triglyceride + H20 --->
    H20 + glycerol + (3) HO-(C=O)-R
  17. What is the smallest fatty acid?
    10 Carbons
  18. Hydrogenation affects what double bond?
    Only between 2 carbons
  19. Syponification of a triglyceride makes what?
    glycerol + 3 fatty acid salts
  20. what end of a fatty acid salt is hydrophilic
    (C=O)-ONa
  21. Characteristics of a glycerophospholipid
    • Hydrolyzable
    • Ester group
    • Looks like a F
    • Phosphate group + amino alcohol
  22. Steroids structure?
    3 hexagons and 1 pentagon
  23. Primary amine
    • R-N-H
    • H
  24. Secondary AMine
    • R-N-R
    • H
  25. Tertiary amine
    • R-N-R
    • R
  26. Primary amines have higher or lower b.p. thand tertiary amines
    Higher
  27. Amines act acidic or basic?
    Basic
  28. Amide generalized
  29. R-(C=O)-N-R
    R
  30. Amides are acidic or basic?
    neither
  31. Anhydride + amine --->
    • R-(C=O)-OH + R-NR-(C=O)-R
    • Carboxylix acid + amide
  32. carboxylix acid + amine --->
    - and + salt
  33. amide + H20 (hydrolysis)
    R-(C=O)-O- + NH2-R +
  34. generalized amino acid
    NH2-CH(side group)- C=O- OH
  35. Zwitter ions contain what
    a positive and negative end that reacts with itself
  36. Neutral?
    Overall charge is 0 or pH is 7
  37. Polar side groups?
    alcohols, amines, amides, thiols, carboxylic acids,
  38. Non-polar side groups
    hydrocarbons
  39. pH neutral groups
    Hydrocarbons, alcohols, amides, thiols
  40. Isoelectric point
    pH when the amino acid has an overall charge of 0
  41. 1 level proteins structure?
    order of amino acids conected by peptide bonds
  42. 2 level protein structures
    • attractions between C=O and N-H of the peptide bonds to give it the alpha- helix shape
    • C=O---H-N or Beta-pleated sheets
  43. 3 level protein structure
    • Between sidegroups
    • disulfide bridge, salt bridge, carboxylic acid and amines
  44. weakest hydrophobic interaction
    hydrocarbon side goup
  45. 4 level of protein structures
    side group interactions in more than one protein molecule working together
  46. Denaturing a protein
    primary structure is the same but the shape has changed
  47. hydrolysis of a protein
    breaks the primary structure
  48. DNA stands for
    deoxyribonucleic acid
  49. RNA stands for
    Ribonucleic acid
  50. Nucleotides do what
    building blocks for nucleic acids
  51. deoxy is missing what
    missing one oxygen
  52. RNA bases
    GCAU
  53. DNA bases
    GCAT
  54. Base pairing
    • A<->T
    • G<->C
    • A<->U
  55. Replication takes place where
    nucleus hydrogen bonds seperate
  56. Transcription needs what
    DNA + mRNA
  57. Translation needs
    mRNA + tRNA + amino acids
  58. Translation:
    mRNA and tRNA have what
    • mRNA have codons and tRNA have anticodons
    • every 3 bases is a codon
    • there is 1 tRNA per amino acid
  59. Substrate + enzyme =
    product
  60. Active site on an enzyme is where
    the substrate connects to the enzyme
  61. Apoenzyme is
    the enzyme that is inactive
  62. Cofactors and coenzymes are
    added to the apoenzyme to make it active
  63. What is an inorganic ion that added together to activate the apoenzyme
    Cofactor (minerals)
  64. Organic molecule (vitamin)
    Coenzyme
  65. What does an inhibitor do
    Stop the enzyme from working properly
  66. Competitive inhibitor works how
    it can inhibit the enzyme and go away
  67. noncompetitive enzymes work how
    they are irrecersible and don't come off this is how poisons work the covalent bond to the enzyme
  68. Glycolysis:
    Glucose is broken into
    • 2 pyruvate molecules
    • CH3-(C=O)2 -O-
  69. After glycolysis we get what
    2 pyruvate molecules, 2 ATP, and 2 NADH
  70. Pyruvate + CoA-SH + NAD+
    acyetal CoA + NADH + CO2
  71. Citrus Acid Cycle:
    Acetal CoA makes what
    3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1ATP x2 for glucose
  72. NADH gives how many ATP
    FADH2 gives how many ATP
    • 3ATP
    • 2ATP
  73. Glucose gives how many ATP
    36 final total of ATP
  74. How many acetal CoA's are formed from fatty acid
    1 for every 2 Carbons
  75. formula for fatty acid spiral
    • 1/2 of the amount of carbons (acetal CoA) x 12 = atp
    • 1/2 of total C - 1 = amount of NADH and FADH2
  76. muscle cells anaerobic conditions
    2 Pyruvate + NADH + H ---> lactate + NAD+
  77. Yeast under anaerobic conditions
    • pyruvate + H ---> C-CO-H + CO2
    • aldehyde + NADH + H ---> ethanol + NAD+
  78. glycogen cycle
    • glycogen--------->glucose---------->pyruvate-------------->glucose---------> glycogen
    • glycogenolysis glycoysis glycneogenesis glycogenesis
  79. lysis means
    to break apart
  80. genesis mean
    to put together
  81. amino carbon portion can be converted to what
    pyruvate or acetyl CoA
  82. Nitrogen must go through what cylcle
    Urea cycle uses 2 ATP
  83. Urea waste product
    H2N-C=O-NH2

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