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What is the ETC?
series of membrane-bound carrier molecules that pass electrons from one to another.
Where do electrons come from?
oxidation of glucose of other foods and are carried by NADH and FADH2
What is the energy from the ETC used for?
to pump proteins across a membrane
Where does the ETC take place in prokaryotes?
what is the difference between NADH and FADH2 in relation to the ETC and energy production?
- NADH dumps its electrons at the 1st carrier
- FADH2 dumps electrons downstream from where NADH dumps its electrons
- more ATP from NADH than FADH2
what is the final electron acceptor in aerobic organisms?
Give one example of an alternative electron acceptor by an anaerobic organism:
- Bacillus & Pseudomonus used in Nitrate
- Desulfovibrio used in Sulfate
What is "chemiosmosis"?
- diffusion of hydrogen ions
- uses potential energy of an electrochemicalgradient to phosphorylate ADP into ATP
Whats is "proton motive force"?
proton gradient w/ potential energy
What is the name of the protein channel enzyme that allows proton flow down their gradient?
Why is the process of making ATP called "oxidative phosphorylation"?
oxidation of NADH = every step is oxidation
what is the purpose of "fermentation"?
partial oxidation of sugar , to release energy using an organic molecule from within the cell as the final electron acceptor.
what are two common types of fermentation?
- pyruvic acid --------- lactic acid
are lactic acid and alcohol the only possible end products of fermentation?
Compare aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration and fermentation
summarize lipid catabolism
- fats consist of glycerol and patty acids.
- lipase breaks the bond attaching the glycerol to the fatty acid tails
- = glycerol, fatty acids
what does glycerol get oxidized to?
how do fatty acids get oxidized?
how can these oxidation products be used for cell energy?
how are proteins catabolized and used for energy?
- cells split protein into amino acids (proteases)
- clip off amino group
- converts into ammonia = molecules that enter kreb