Lab Values

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Author:
hannahsahm
ID:
196727
Filename:
Lab Values
Updated:
2013-01-30 18:16:55
Tags:
Nursing
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Description:
Chapter 16
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  1. potassium k+
    • 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
    • increased:
    • dehydration
    • renal failure
    • acidosis
    • cellular/tissue damage
    • hemolysis of the specimen
    • decreased in:
    • NPO status when potassium replacement is inadequate
    • vomiting
    • malnutrition 
    • diarrhea
  2. Sodium Na +
    • 136-145 mEq/L
    • increased in:
    • cardiac or renal failure 
    • hypertension 
    • excessive amounts of IV fluids containing normal saline 
    • edema 
    • dehydration 
    • Decreased in:
    • nasogastric drainage 
    • diarrhea 
    • vomiting 
    • laxatives or diuretics 
    • amounts of IV fluids containing water
  3. Chloride Cl-
    • 98-106 mEq/L
    • increased in:
    • dehydration
    • renal failure
    • excessive amounts of IV fluids containing sodium chloride 
    • decreased in:
    • nasogastric drainage
    • vomiting
    • diarrhea 
    • excessive use of diuretics 
  4. Carbon dioxide CO2
    • 60 & under-23-30 mEq/L
    • increased in:
    • chronic pulmonary disease
    • intestinal obstruction
    • vomiting
    • nasogastric suctioning 
    • decreased in:
    • hyperventilation
    • diabetic ketoacidosis
    • diarrhea
    • lactic acidosis
    • renal failure
    • salicylate toxicity(aspirin)
  5. Glucose (fasting)
    • (60& under)-70-110 mg/dL
    • (60-90 yr)-82-115 mg/dL
    • increased in:
    • hyperglycemia
    • amounts of IV fluids containing glucose
    • stress
    • steroid use
    • pancreatic or hepatic disease
    • decreased in:
    • hypoglycemia 
    • excess insulin 
  6. Creatinine
    • females:
    • (60 & under) 0.5-1.1 mg/dL
    • (60-90) 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
    • males:
    • (60 & under) 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
    • (60-90) 0.8-1.3 mg/dL
    • increased in:
    • renal insufficiency 
    • acute renal failure
    • chronic kidney disease
    • decreased in:
    • atrophy of muscle tissue 
  7. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
    • (60 & under) 10-20 mg/dL
    • (60-90) 8-23 mg/dL
    • increased in:
    • dehydration
    • renal failure
    • excessive protein in diet
    • liver failure
    • decreased in:
    • overhydration
    • malnutrition 
  8. Prothrombin time (pro time, PT)
    • 11-12.5 sec, 85-100%
    • increased in:
    • coagulation defect
    • vitamin K deficiency 
    • decreased in:
    • coagulation disorder; thrombophlebitis or pulmonary embolus 
  9. International normalized ratio (INR)
    • 0.7-1.8
    • increased in:
    • anticoagulant therapy (aspirin, warfarin)
    • decreased in:
    • extensive cancer
  10. Partial thromoplastin time, activated (aPTT)
    • 30-40 sec
    • increased in:
    • coagulation defect
    • anticoagulant therapy (heparin)
    • liver disease
    • decreased in:
    • coagulation disorder; thrombophlebitis or pulmonary embolus
    • extensive cancer
  11. White blood cell (WBC) count (leukocyte count)
    • total: 5,000-10,000/mm^3
    • increased in:
    • infection
    • inflammation
    • stress
    • tissue necrosis
    • decreased in:
    • immune disorder
    • immunosuppressant therapy
  12. hemoglobin, total
    • famales:
    • (18-44) 12-16 g/dL
    • (45-64) 11.7-16.0 g/dL
    • males:
    • (18-44) 14-18 g/dL
    • (45-64) 13.1-17.2 g/dL
    • increased in:
    • dehydration
    • polycythemia
    • chronic pulmonary disease
    • congestive heart failure
    • decreased in:
    • blood loss
    • anemia
    • renal failure
  13. Hematocrit
    • females:
    • (18-44) 35-45%
    • (45-74) 37-47%
    • males:
    • (18-44) 42-52%
    • (45-64) 39-50%
    • (65-74) 37-51%
    • increased in:
    • dehydration
    • polycythemia
    • high altitude
    • decreased in:
    • blood loss
    • anemia
    • kidney failure

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