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Where does preventing food borne illness start?
Food service worker maintaining his or her personal hygiene.
What does personal hygiene require?
Good personal hygiene requires vigilant personnel and constant attention.
How should you chill custards, cream fillings, and other hazardous food?
As quickly as possible by pouring them into shallow pans and covering and refrigerating them.
What temperature are considered in the danger zone?
- Cold food items above 41o F and hot food items below 140o F.
What is a safe internal temperature to reheat leftovers?
Bacteria are living organisms and must have nutrients, moisture, correct temperature, pH (degrees of acidity and alkalinity), presence or absence of oxygen, and time to survive and grow. With the addition of proper temperatures and oxygen levels, bacteria can multiply to large numbers within a short period of time.
What are natural poisons?
Naturally poisonous foods include certain mushroom species, some vegetables, certain tropical fish (puffer type fish and ocean sunfish), mollusks (clams, oysters, scallops, and mussels), and some shellfish. Solanine poisoning can be found in potato sprouts or eyes.
What does potentially hazardous foods contain?
Potentially hazardous foods are perishable foods that contain a lot of protein (such as milk products, eggs, meat, poultry, fish)
What temperature should fruits and vegetables be cooked to for hot holding?
Temperature of 135o F
What must the water temperature be for thawing foods?
At a water temperature of 70o F or below.
What internal temperature do we cook all beef products, fish and lamb?
145oF for 15 seconds
Explain the time that potentially hazardous foods can be held in the danger zone?
Potentially hazardous foods that have been held in the danger zone for more than 4 hours must be considered unsafe for consumption and destroyed. If the product is refrigerated at intervals and then permitted to warm up, the total time of the various periods within the danger zone temperatures must not exceed four hours.
What does the success of an HACCP program depend on?
They depend upon both facilities and people.
What are the seven HACCP principles?
- 1. Perform a hazard analysis.
- 2. Decide on the CCP.
- 3. Determine the critical limits.
- 4. Establish procedures to monitor CCPs.
- 5. Establish corrective action.
- 6. Establish verification procedures.
- 7. Establish a record keeping system.
Define brown (in cooking and baking terms)
To produce a brown color on the surface of food by subjecting it to heat.
Define cream (in cooking and baking terms)
To mix until smooth, so that the resulting mixture is softened and thoroughly blended.
Define fold (in cooking and baking terms)
To blend 2 or more ingredients together with a cutting and folding motion.
Define progressive cookery (in cooking and baking terms)
The continuous preparation of food in successive steps during the entire serving period (ie continuous prep of vegetables, cook-to-order hamburgers, steaks, fried eggs, pancakes). The procedure ensures fresh, high quality cooked food to customers on a continuous basis. See Batch Preparation.
Name 2 cooking methods used in the DFAC
moist and dry heat
What should be done to meat before braising?
It should be seared first in hot fat.
What happens to meat during the exposure to moist heat?
The proteins that make up the muscle fibers are denaturing or unwinding a bit.
How are the major flavor compounds developed when grilling and broiling?
Through browning of the food and any marinade used before the heating of the food.
What is the temperature range for frying?
325oF - 400oF
What part(s) of the thermometer should be inserted to the center of the meat at the thickest point?
The tip of the thermometer, which is heat sensitive, should be inserted to the center of the meat at its thickest joint.
How can you tell if the meat doneness is rare?
Meat juices should run dark red with a temperature of 130oF
What do people usually choose their food with?
People choose their food with their eyes. That is, they either accept or reject food items on the serving line based solely on their appearance.
What is the cardinal rule when displaying food on the serving line?
Arrange food properly
Who is responsible for the entire serving operation?
What is the most important garnishing characteristic when producing the desired effect?
Define progressive cooking.
Cooking small batches of food to be available as needed
Name some progressive cooking pointers.
- When cooking, remember these tips:
- 1. Open canned items only as needed.
- 2. Research your recipes before each meal to estimate how long it takes to prepare a menu item. Then look at the Production Log to see when that item is scheduled to be on the serving line. From there, you can determine when to start preparing it.
- 3. Do not complete all food preparation for a meal before the serving line is opened.
How should you store food?
Date new food items and store them behind the older food items.
How can you consistently yield products of the same quality and quantity?
Standardized recipes that are followed by the instructions given and use the components listed in the recipe.
List 4 ways to conserve fuel or energy in the dining facilities.
- Any 4 of the following:
- 1. Ensure exterior doors to the facility are closed.
- 2. Ensure refrigerator and freezer doors are closed and sealed properly.
- 3. Use appropriate temperatures when cooking food.
- 4. Preheat ovens so extra fuel and cooking times are not required. Do not leave ovens on all day just so they are ready when they are needed.
- 5. Ensure thermometers are calibrated.
- 6. Ensure all equipment is maintained properly.
- 7. Ensure freezers are defrosted frequently so they maintain proper temperature and air circulation.