Psychology Chapter 3

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Psychology Chapter 3
2013-01-30 19:33:25

psych ch 3
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  1. Neurons
    specialized cells in the nervous system that send and receive information throughout the body
  2. Spinal Cord
    bundle of nerves that connects the brain to the rest of the body
  3. Sensory
    pick up stimuli inside the body or in the world and send signals to the brain
  4. Motor
    send output signals from the brain to glands, muscles, and organs
  5. Interneurons
    • connect neurons to one another
    • majority of neurons in your system
  6. Primary Components
    soma, dendrites, axon
  7. Soma
    • body
    • nucleus and control center
  8. Dendrites
    • trees
    • receive information from other neurons and bring it to the soma
  9. Axon
    carries information
  10. Myelin Sheath
    coating which speeds up passing of information
  11. Terminal Buttons
    • at the end of an axon
    • come close to touching other terminal buttons on other neurons
  12. Synapse
    gap between terminal buttons and dendrites on another neuron
  13. Glial Cells
    • support cell
    • supply the neurons with support, nutrients, and insulation
    • glial cells literally hold the brain together
    • more glial cells than neurons
  14. Neurotransmitters
    chemical messages that travel between nerve cells and muscles to trigger or prevent an impulse in the receiving cell
  15. Acetylcholine
    • neurotransmitter
    • walking, talking, blinking, breathing memories
  16. Dopamine
    • neurotransmitter
    • large muscle movement, pleasure, motivation
  17. Endorphins
    • neurotransmitter
    • pain suppression and pleasure
  18. Seritonin
    • neurotransmitter
    • emotions, aggression, appetite, anxious moods, and sleep
  19. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    consists of brain and spinal cord
  20. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord with the organs and tissues of the body
  21. Somatic Nervous System
    • division of the PNS
    • sends commands to voluntary skeletal muscles and receives sensory information from the muscles and the skin
  22. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
    • division of the PNS
    • controls movement of the involuntary nonskeletal muscles
  23. Sympathetic Nervous System
    • part of the ANS
    • activates the body's energy resources to deal with threatening situations
  24. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    • part of the ANS
    • conserves and maintains the body's energy resources
  25. Endocrine System
    network of glands that manufactures and secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream
  26. Hormones
    chemical messengers, carried by the bloodstream, that regulate or stimulate the body
  27. Pituitary Gland
    • growth hormone
    • stimulates growth and metabolic function
  28. Thyroid Gland
    • thyroxin
    • stimulates and maintains metabolic processes
  29. Adrenal Gland
    • epinephrine and norepinephrine
    • increase metabolic activities and blood glucose, constrict certain blood vessels
  30. Gonads
    • testoerone, estrogen, and progesterone
    • two sex glands
  31. Electroencephalograph (EEG)
    • brain imaging technique that records "waves" of electrical activity in the brain
    • drawback: measures the electrical activity of many different areas of the brain at once, making it hard to pinpoint exact locations of brainwave activity
  32. Computerized Axial Tomograph (CAT) Scan
    • brain imaging technique that combines thousands of x-ray photographs to construct a picture of the brain
    • helpful in detecting brain abnormalities such as swelling and enlargements of certain areas
  33. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • brain imaging technique that produces three-dimensional images of the brain's soft tissue
    • provides greater accuracy in diagnosis of brain diseases than the CAT scan
  34. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan
    • brain imaging technique that measure the average neural activity in different brain regions over a few minutes
    • great for identifying areas of the brain that are active when talking, listening, reading or any other activity
  35. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
     brain imaging technique that measures the average neural activity in different brain regions over a few seconds
  36. Hindbrain
    • found at the rear base of the skull that controls the most basic biological need for life
    • contains medulla, pons, and  cerebellum
  37. Midbrain
    part of the brain above the hindbrain that plays a role in attention, stimulation, and consciousness
  38. Forebrain
    part of the brain above the midbrain the controls emotional reactions, thought processes, movement, sensory information, and body temperature
  39. Medulla
    • located at the top of spinal cord
    • controls breathing, heart rate, swallowing and digestion
  40. Pons
    sleep and arousal
  41. Cerebellum
    • regulation and coordination of body movement
    • plays a role in learning
  42. Reticular Formation
    • in midbrain
    • involved in regulation and maintenance of consciousness and sleep
    • allows you to sleep through familiar sounds but when startled by loud noises RF creates heightened arousal 
    • if RF gets damaged you have a permanent coma
  43. Thalamus
    • forebrain
    • sensory relay station
    • sorts and sends messages to eyes, ears, tongue, skin, and other parts of the brain
  44. Hypothalamus
    • forebrain
    • provides homeostasis by maintaining a constant internal body state
    • regulates eating, drinking, and sexual behavior and release of hormones form the pituitary gland 
  45. Limbic System
    • forebrain
    • combined of amygdala and hippocampus
  46. Amygdala
    controls fear and aggression
  47. Hippocampus
    important for memory formation
  48. Cerebral Cortex
    thinking center of the brain that coordinates and integrates all areas of the brain into a fully functioning unit
  49. Cerebral Hemispheres
    two halves of the brain
  50. Corpus Callosum
    thick band of 200 million white nerve fibers that transmits information between the two hemispheres
  51. Frontal
    • two largest lobes of the brain
    • involved in coordination of movement and higher metal process such as planning, social skills, emotional control, and abstract thinking
    • right frontal lobe controls more negative moods, while left controls more positive feelings
  52. Parietal
    • involved in touch and sensation and how you experience yourself in the space around you 
    • damage to this area can destroy your sense of touch
  53. Temporal
    • important for hearing and language
    • left damage: no understanding words/sentences
    • right damage: loss of hearing
  54. Occipital
    • visual regions of the brain 
    • allow you to experience shapes, color, and motion
    • damage causes blindness
  55. Brain Health
    avoid harmful substances, exercise on a regular basis, eat sensibly, challenge yourself mentally, wear you seat belt and bike helmet
  56. Heredity
    transmission of genetic characteristics from parents to offspring
  57. Environment
    the world around you
  58. Genes
    basic biochemical units of heredity
  59. DNA
    means by which heredity characteristics pass from one generation to the next 
  60. Fraternal Twins
    developed from two separate sperm and eggs
  61. Identical Twins
    • develop from the same egg
    • identical genetype
  62. Nature
    heredity, biological makeup
  63. Nurture
    environment, life experiences, family, education