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Bacteriostatic or -cidal: macrolides and tetracycline?
bacteriostatic or -cidal: beta lactams like penicillin and cephalosporins?
Static or -cidal: chloramphenicol and sulfonamides?
Static or -cidal: aminoglycosides and potentiated sulfas?
Static or cidal: flouroquinolones, rifampin, and vancomycin?
Lipid or water soluble: high volume of distribution? which is highly bound to plasma protein?
- hi Vd = lipid soluble
- bound to plasma protein = water soluble
Water or lipid soluble: which is better choice for CNS infections? undergoes hepatic biotransformation?
which antibiotic is amphoteric (both lipid and water soluble)?
are lipid or water soluble Abs more likely to create granulomas when injected in muscle?
are water or lipid soluble Abs better for acute soft tissue and bone infections?
what is usually the causative agent for creamy, white pus in a ruminant?
what is usually causative agent for malodorous, brown watery exudates?
anaerobe such as Fusobacterium
What are some examples of common intracellular pathogens found in FA? Treat w/lipid or water soluble?
- salmonella, mycobacterium, listeria, staph, anaplasma, mycoplasma
- lipid soluble to penetrate/go intracellular
which Abs are nephrotoxic, esp. if dehydrated and given repeatedly?
Which Ab is toxic to growin cartilage?
- Which Ab causes bone marrow suppression?
- cartilage- fluoroquinolones
- BM suppression: chloramphenicol
Rumen flora break down most Abs, except?
IM injections are common. where are they often given? Which drug if accidentally self injected can be fatal?
SQ administration is common. Is there more or less tissue damage compared to IM? How does rate of absorption compare?
SQ less damaging and slower absorption
Which Abs can cause cardiac arrest when given IV, especially in small ruminants?
- potassium penicillin
What are the drugs prohibited for extra-label use in FA?
- sulfonamide in lactating dairy cows (except approved use)
- fluoroquinolones (ok in beef cattle with pneumonia only)
- glycopeptides like vancomycin
- nitroimidazoles and related
- colloid silver
Beta lactams-penicillins: static or cidal? MOA? spectrum of action?
- cidal, inhibits cell wall synthesis
- G +, anaerobes --> drug of choice for clostridium
- some activity against weaker G- (M.bovis)
with aminopenicillins, how does amino group change the spectrum of the drug?
increases lipophilicity so better penetration of G- cell wall
What are some common indications for beta lactams?
- UTI, rumenotomy, metritis
- foot rot, hardware dz, pink eye
beta-lactams-cephalosporins: static or cidal? spectrum?
- cidal (prevents cross linking of cell wall)
- g+, more g- with increasing generation
Which cephalosporins have no milk WDT?
Naxcel, Excenel, Excede
Sulfonamides: cidal or static? Spectrum?
- static (competitive antagonist of PABA in folate enzyme system)
- G+ (some negs)
Common indications for use of sulfonamides?
- UTI (water soluble)
- coccidia treatment (albon)
what is indication for potentiated sulfonamides?
- preruminant calves with bacterial enteritis
- (rapidly degraded if given orally to adult ruminant)
Macrolides: cidal or static? lipip or water soluble?
- static (50s ribosome)
- excellent lipid solubility
What are examples of macrolides? what is their spectrum of activity?
- tylosin (tylan)
- tilmicosin (micotil)
- G+, *mycoplasma*, chlamydia, pasteurella, histophilus
- acceptable for pneumonia
what are potential hazards of macrolides?
micotil is cardiotoxic to humans/animals that are not large adult ruminants
erythromycin can cause heat stress/incr. thermogenesis
What is Tylan commonly used for in feed lots?
to limit hepatic abscesses
Tetracyclines: cidal or static? spectrum?
- static (30s ribosome)
- broad spectrum (salmonella mostly resistant though)
What are common indications for use of tetracyclines?
- foot baths or wraps for hairy heel warts
- blood born parasites (anaplasma, chlamydia)
- early pneumonia
- M.bovis (pink eye)
what are some potential problems with tetracyclines?
- irritation at injection site
- nephrotoxic if outdated
Aminoglycosides: cidal or static? spectrum? lipid or water soluble?
- cidal (irreversibly to 30s ribosome)
- mostly G -
- water soluble so will NOT cross BBB (not for meningitis)
Why is there a voluntary ban of aminoglycosides from FA? What are other potential problems associated with these?
what are two examples of aminoglycosides?
Fluoroquinolones: cidal or static? spectrum?
- cidal (inhibits DNA gyrase)
- Broad for G+/- mycoplasma and chlamydia
- poor against Strep, NO activity against anaerobes
what is an example of fluoroqinolones? what are common indications for fluoroqinolones? what is potential problem associated?
- enrofloxacin (Baytril)
- pneumonia in refractory cases in beef cattle only
- juvenile articular cartilage damage, not for use in lactating cattle
Lincosamides: cidal or static? spectrum?
- static and cidal (50S ribosome)
- mostly G+, some anaerobes, mycoplasma
What species is lincosamide commonly used in? why this species and not others?
- swine (monogastrics)
- can induce severe enterocolitis in horse/ruminant
Rifamycin: cidal or static? lipid or water soluble? what are some organisms rifamycin will NOT target?
- cidal (inactivates RNA polymerase)
- highly lipid soluble (into bone, soft tissue)
- no efficacy against pseudomonas, salmonella, e.coli
What are common inidcations of use of rifampin?
- chronic granulomas or purulent disease
- caseous lymphadenitis in small ruminants
- R. equi in foals (+ erythromycin)
Florfenicol: cidal or static? lipid or water soluble? spectrum?
- static (binds 50s ribosome)
- highly lipid soluble (penetrates BBB, intracellular)
- broad for G +/- and more anaerobes
- NOT against pseudomonas or serratia
common indication for use of florfenicol?
what is a new class of antimicrobials related to macrolides and used in swine medicine? Static or cidal?
- static (binds 23s rNA)
what are two antimicrobials commonly used in swine feed?
tiamulin and valnemulin
what are 4 antimicrobials commonly used systemically in swine?
- excede (ceftiofur)
What is the only NSAID approved for use in FA? what is the only legal route of administration?
- flunixin (Banamine specifically)
what are indications for flunixin?
- pain control
- binds endotoxins?
What is FARAD recommendation regarding use of phenylbutazone in FA?
recommends not using it at all in FA but only illegal if used in dairy (allowed to use in beef cattle ONLY)
What analgesic/sedative are ruminants extremely sensitive to? what happens if over dosed?
- alpha 2 agonist = xylazine
- bloat! bradycardia, diuretic effect/hyperglycemia
- (avoid in urolithiasis cases)
what is cephapirin sodium and cephapirin benzathine used for? what is the difference in the two formulations?
- direct intramammary infusion for mastitis
- 1st gen. cephalosporins (G+ like staph/strep)
- sodium= 96hr WDT; benzathine= 30d WDT (oil based)
what is purpose of giving magnesium pills?
- antacid - laxative
- Mg pulls water into GI for laxative effect
what is use of furosemide in FA?
- better sample collection when testing for lepto
- udder edema near parturition
- (CHF not common in FA)
what is purpose of propylene glycol in FA?
for ketosis --> helps with gluconeogenesis
Amprolium is a commonly used coccidiostat, but what is problem if given high doses over several days?
neuro disease = polioencephalomalacia
What is common indication for sodium iodide 20% solution?
wooden tongue and lumpy jaw (actinomycosis and actinobacillosis)