psych chapter 8

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psych chapter 8
2013-02-06 14:02:40

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  1. mental activity that involves understanding, manipulating, and communicating information
  2. an object or an act that stands for something else
  3. a mental structure used to categorize objects, people, or events that share similar characteristics
  4. an original model on which others in the same category are patterned
  5. a problem-solving strategy that eventually leads to a solution; usually involves trying random solutions to a problem in a systematic way
  6. a strategy for making judgments and solving problems
  7. a problem-solving method that involves reducing the difference between the present situation and the desired one
    difference reduction 
  8. a heuristic device in which a solution to a problem is found by evaluating the difference between the current situation and the goal
    means-end analysis 
  9. the tendency to arrive at a solution after a period of time away from the problem
    incubation effect
  10. the tendency to approach a new problem in a way that has been successful in the past
    mental set
  11. a barrier to problem solving that involves the tendency to think of objects only in terms of their common use
    functional fixedness
  12. thinking that is limited to available facts 
    convergent thinking
  13. a thought process that attempts to generate multiple solutions to a problem
    divergent thinking
  14. the process of drawing logical conclusions from facts and arguments
  15. a form of thinking in which conclusions are inferred from premises; the conclusions are true if the premises are true
    deductive reasoning
  16. a statement or assertion that serves as the basis for an argument
  17. a form of thinking that involves using individual cases or particular facts to reach a general conclusion
    inductive reasoning 
  18. the tendency to look for information that confirms one's preconceived notions
    confirmation bias
  19. the process of making decisions about a sample according to the population that the sample appears to represent
    representativeness heuristic 
  20. the process of making decisions based on certain ideas or standards held by the decision maker
    anchoring heuristic 
  21. the influence of wording, or the way in which information is presented, on decision making
    framing effect
  22. the communication of ideas through sounds and symbols that are arranged according to the rules of grammar
  23. the basic sound unit in a spoken language 
  24. the smallest meaningful unit of language, a prefix or suffix
  25. the ways in which words and phrases are arranged into grammatical sentences
  26. the study of meaning in language; the relationship between language and the objects depicted by the language 
  27. the formation of plurals and the past tense of irregular nouns and verbs according to rules of grammar that apply to regular nouns and verbs; characteristic of the speech of young children
  28. according to Chomsky, the inborn ability of humans to acquire language
    language acquisition device