Medical Terminology 2013 Chapter 2
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Medical Terminology 2013 Chapter 2
medical terms for chapter 2
Basic unit of life
Group of identical cells working together
Composed of two or more types of tissue
Collection of organs working together
All systems working together to sustain life
Levels of Body Organization
cells-> tissues-> organs-> systems
What four terms are associated with cells?
Cell membrane, cytoplasm, cytology and nucleus
study of cells and their functions
the outermost boundary of a cell
the watery internal environment of the cell
contains the cell's DNA
What are four types of tissues?
connective tissues, muscle tissue, epithelial tissue, and nervous tissue
study of tissue
What are muscles composed of?
produces movement in the body through contraction, or shortening in length
What are three basic types of muscles?
cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle
attached to bone
found in internal organs
found only in the heart
epithelial tissue (epithelium)
close-packed cells that form the covering for and lining of body structures
Other than protective barrier what can epithelium be specialized to do?
absorb substances, secrete substances, or excrete wastes
the supporting and protecting tissue in body structures
What are the four types of connective tissue?
adipose, bone, cartilage and tendons
provides structural support for the whole body
the shock absorber in joints
tightly connect skeletal muscles to bones
provides protective padding around body structures
what is nervous tissue composed of?
cells called neurons
what do the nervous tissues form?
brain, spinal cord and a network of nerves throughout the entire body
: skin, hair nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands
: forms protective two-way barrier and aids in temperature regulation
: bones, joints, muscles
: Skeleton supports and protects the body, forms blood cells, and stores minerals. Muscles produce movement
: heart, arteries, veins
: Pumps blood throughout the entire body to transport nutrients, oxygen and wastes
blood (hematic system)
: plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets
: Transports oxygen, protects against pathogens, and controls bleeding
: lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, spleen, thymus gland, tonsils
: Protects the body from disease and invasion from pathogens
: nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, lungs
: Obtains oxygen and removes carbon dioxide from the body
digestive/ gastrointestinal system
: oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, salivary glands
: Ingests, digests, and absorbs nutrients for the body
: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
: Filters waste products out of the blood and removes them from the body
female reproductive system
: ovary, fallopian tuves, uterus, vagina, vulva, breasts
: Produces eggs for reproduction and provides place for growing baby
male reproductive system
: testes, epididymis, vas deferens, penis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral gland
: Produces sperm for reproduction
: pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, thymus gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, testes
: Regulates metabolic activities of the body
: brain, spinal cord, nerves
: Receives sensory information and coordinates the body's response
: hearing and balance
standing erect with arms at the sides of body, palms of the hands facing forward and eyes looking straight ahead. Legs are parallel with the feet and toes are pointing forward
vertical plane that divides the body (or any of its parts) into right and left portions
divides the body into front and back portions
a crosswise plane that runs parallel to the ground
produced by a lengthwise slice along the long axis of a structure
produced by a slice perpendicular to the long axis of the structure
another term for frontal plane
another term for transverse plane
trunk is divided into what two regions?
anterior and posterior
anterior side consists of...
thoracic, abdominal, pelvic, and pubic regions
posterior side consists of...
dorsum, vertebral and gluteal regions
what two extremities are attached to the trunk
upper/brachial regions (arms) and lower/crural regions (legs)