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Theory that all organisms consist of one or more cells, which are the basic unit of life; all cells come from division of pre-existing cells; and all cells pass hereditary material to offspring
Semifluid substance enclosed by a cell's plasma membrane
Organelle with two membranes that hold's a eukaryotic cell's DNA
A cell's outermost membrane
Surface to volume ratio
A relationship in which the volume of an object increases with the cube of the diameter, and the surface area increases with the square
Community of microorganisms living within a shared mass of slime
Semirigid but permeable structure that surrounds the plasma membrane of some cells
Long, slender cellular structure used for motility
Region of cytoplasm where the DNA is concentrated inside a bacterium or archaeon
Protein filament that projects from the surface of some bacteria and archaea
Small circle of DNA in some bacteria and archaea
Organelle of protein synthesis
Collective term for DNA molecules together with their associated proteins
A structure that consists of DNA and associated proteins; carries part or all of a cell's genetic information
A double membrane that constitutes the outer boundary of the nucleus. Pores in the membrane control which substances can cross
In a cell nucleus, a dense, irregularly shaped region where ribosomal subunits are assembled
Viscous fluid enclosed by the nuclear envelope
Fluid filled vesicle in many plant cells
Series of interacting organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, vesicles) between nucleus and plasma membrane; produces lipids, proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Organelle that is a continuous system of sacs and tubes; extension of the nuclear envelope. Smooth ER makes lipids and breaks down carbohydrates and fatty acids; rough ER modifies polypeptides made by ribosomes on its surface
Organelle that modifies polypeptides and lipids; also sorts and packages the finished products into vesicles
Enzyme-filled vesicle that functions in intracellular digestion
Enzyme-filled vesicle that breaks down amino acids, fatty acids, and toxic substances
A fluid-filled organelle that isolates or disposes of waste, debris, or toxic materials
Small, membrane-enclosed, saclike organelle; different kinds store, transport, or degrade their contents
Organelle of photosynthesis in the cells of plants and many protists
Organelle that produces ATP by aerobic respiration in eukaryotes
Category of double-membraned organelle in plants and algal cells. Different types specialize in storage or photosynthesis - chloroplast, amyloplast
Organelle that develops from a centriole
Reinforcing mesh of cytoskeletal elements under a plasma membrane
Barrel-shaped organelle from which microtubules grow
Short, movable structure that projects from the plasma membrane of some eukaryotic cells
Dynamic framework of protein filaments that support, organize, and move eukaryotic cells and their internal structures
Stable cytoskeletal element that structurally supports cells and tissues
Intermediate filaments strengthen and maintain the shape of animal cells and tissues.
Reinforcing cytoskeletal element; a fiber of actin subunits
Networks of microfilaments reinforce the surfaces of eukaryotic cells
Cytoskeletal element involved in cellular movement; hollow filament of tubulin subunits
Microtubules organize eukaryotic cells and help move their parts.
Type of energy-using protein that interacts with cytoskeletal elements to move the cell's parts or the whole cell
A temporary protrusion that helps some eukaryotic cells move and engulf prey
Cell junction composed of adhesion proteins; anchors cells to each other and extracellular matrix
Structure that connects a cell to another cell or to extracellular matrix
Secreted covering at a body surface
Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
Complex mixture of cell secretions; supports cells and tissues; has roles in cell signaling
Cell junction that forms a channel across the plasma membranes of adjoining animal cells
Material that stiffens cell walls of vascular plants
Cell junctions that connect the cytoplasm of adjacent plant cells
The first cell wall of young plant cells
Lignin-reinforced wall that forms inside the primary wall of a plant cell
Arrays of fibrous proteins; join epithelial cells and collectively prevent fluids from leaking betweeen them
What are the differences between the prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells?
Every cell has a plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and DNA. Only eukaryotic cells have a nucleus.
Why are cells so small?
Cells are so small due to the surface to volume ratio. A living cell must exchange substances with its environment at a rate that keeps pace with its metabolism. If the cell gets too large, the inward flow of nutrients and the outward flow of wastes across the plasma membrane will not be fast enough to keep the cell alive.
What are the 4 statements of cell theory?
- Every living organism consists of one or more cells.
- The cell is the structural and functional unit of all organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life, individually alive even as part of a multicelled organism.
- All living cells arise by division or preexisting cells.
- Cells contain hereditary material, which they pass to their offspring during division.
What are the features of a prokaryotic cell? Be able to define and describe each component.
- Cell wall - a durable cell wall surrounding the plasma membrane. Archaean cell walls consist of proteins, bacterial cell walls consist of a polymer of peptides and polysaccharides.
- Flagellum - long, slender cellular structures used for motion
- Pili - protein filaments that project from the surface and help the cells cling to or move across surfaces, also help in reproduction
- Ribosomes - organelles upon which polypeptides are assembled
- Nucleoid - an irregularly shapd region of cytoplasm that houses the DNA
- Plasmids - small circles of DNA that carry genes that provide advantages like resistance to antibiotics
What are the differences between archaea and bacteria?
- Archaea and bacteria are different in structure and metabolism.
- Most archaean cell walls consist of proteins
- Most bacterial cell walls consist of a polymer of peptides and polysaccaharides
Components of Eukaryotic Cells
- Organelles with Membranes:
- Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
- Golgi Body
- Organelles without Membranes:
Components of Eukaryotic Cells - Nucleus
protects & controls access to DNA
Components of Eukaryotic Cells - ER
routing, modifying new polypeptide chains; synthesizing lipids
Components of Eukaryotic Cells - Golgi Body
modifying new polypeptide chains; sorting, shipping proteins and lipids
Components of Eukaryotic Cells - Vesicles
transporting, storing or digesting substances in a cell
Components of Eukaryotic Cells - Mitochondrian
Making ATP by glucose breakdown
Components of Eukaryotic Cells - Chloroplast
Photosynthesis in plants, some protists
Components of Eukaryotic Cells - Lysosome
Components of Eukaryotic Cells - peroxisome
Components of Eukaryotic Cells - Lysosome
- no nucleus
- capsule + cell wall + plasma membrane
- no organelles
- flagellum, ability to move
- DNA organized in circular
- Cell Membrane (lipid bilayer)
- DNA organized in chromosomes
Components of Eukaryotic Cells - vacuole
Components of Eukaryotic Cells - ribosomes
assembling polypeptide chaines
Components of Eukaryotic Cells - centriole
anchor for cytoskeleton
Components of Eukaryotic Cells - cytoskeleton
contributes to cell shape, internal organization, movement
What are the similarities between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
- Both have:
What are some defining characteristics of the eukaryotic cells?
All eukaryotic cells start life with a nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles
List some differences between the animal cell and the plant cell:
Animal cells have no cell wall, chloroplast, or vacuole
Components of the Nucleus
- Nuclear envelope
Components of the Nucleus - Nuclear Envelope
pore-riddled double membrane that controls which substances enter and leave the nucleus
Components of the Nucleus - Nucleoplasm
semifluid interior portion of the nucleus
Components of the Nucleus - Nucleolus
rounded mass of proteins and copies of genes for ribosomal RNA used to construct ribosomal subunits
Components of the Nucleus - Chromatins
total collection of all DNA molecules and associated proteins in the nucleus; all of the cell's chromosomes
Components of the Nucleus - Chromosome
one DNA molecule and many proteins associated with it
What is the function of a nuclear pore?
the nuclear pore controls what leaves and enters the nucleus, it acts as a gateway
What is a nuclear envelope?
the nuclear envelope is two lipid bilayers pressed together as a single membrane surrounding the nucleus, the outer bilayer is continuous with ER, and the nuclear pore allows certain substances to pass through the membrane, it requires an energy source