Animal Anatomy & Physiology

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mmrobin3
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196750
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Animal Anatomy & Physiology
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2013-01-31 01:14:53
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ANS 205
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ANS 205 Exam 1
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  1. Cell Components
    • Cell membrane
    • Cytoplasmic Organelles
    • Nucleus
  2. Phospholipid bilayer
    -Phospholipids arranged with their polar(hydrophilic heads) facing the protein layer and their non-polar (hydrophobic tails) facing eachother.
  3. Types of cell transport
    Active and passive
  4. Diffusion
    Distribution of a substance in a solvent so that it gets equally concentrated
  5. Simple Diffusion
    Down a concentration gradient
  6. Facilitated Diffusion
    Down a concentration gradient but requires a carrier protein (transmembrane protein)
  7. Osmosis
    • -Movement of water across semi-permeable membranes
    • -From low to high solute concentration
  8. Isotonic
    • -Solution has the same osmotic pressure.
    • -Ex: 0.9% NaCl
  9. Hypotonic
    • -Solution has lower osmotic pressure
    • -Less conc. than saline
    • -Creates hemolysis (swell) of the cell
  10. Hypertonic
    • -Solution has higher osmotic pressure
    • -causes crenation (shrivel) of the cell
  11. Active Transport
    • -Low to high concentration
    • -ATP required- Hydrolyzed by ATPase activity of the carrier
    • -Phosphorylation of carrier causes change in shape and movement of molecule
    •   -Changes transmembrane protein
  12. Example of Active Transport
    NA-K ATPase pump
  13. Components in cytoplasm
    • -Cytosol (liquid component)
    • -Organelles
    • -Cytoskeleton (filaments/microtubules)
  14. Cell Organelles
    • -Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • -Mitochondria
    • -Ribosomes
    • -Lysosomes
  15. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • -Found in muscle cell to store calcium
    • -Found in endocrine grands and muscle cells
  16. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • -Protein Synthesis
    • -Covered in ribosomes
  17. Mitochondria
    • -Powerhouse of the cell
    • -Muscle cells has abundance 
  18. Lysosomes
    • -Membrane-bond vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes
    • -Originate from ER and Golgi
    • -Many in WBC...none in RBC
    • -Capable of fusing with intracellular organelles
  19. Cytoskeleton
    • -Microtubules scattered throughout the cytoplasm, largest and most rigid
    • -Intermediate Filaments (Cell junction like desmosomes
    • -Microfilaments: Spindle fibers during cell division
  20. Types of Tissue
    • -Epithelial (lining)
    • -Connective
    • -Muscle
    • -Nervous
  21. Classification of Epithelial tissue
    • -Simple vs Stratified
    • -Squamous(flat), Cuboidal(square), Columnar(tall)
  22. Location of Simple Squamous
    Anmili of the lungs
  23. Location of Simple Cuboidal
    Kidney
  24. Location of Simple Columnar
    Digestive tract
  25. Location and differences of Pseudostratified Columnar
    • -Trachea
    • -Not truly stratified
    • -Studded with goblet cells which produce mucus
  26. Location of Stratified Squamous
    • -Keratinized is found in the skin
    • -Nonkeratinized found in the esophagus
    • -Keratinized has glassy feature (close to shedding)
  27. Location of Stratified Cuboidal
    Sweat & salivary glands
  28. Location of Stratified Columnar
    Least common & found in Urethra
  29. Transitional Tissue
    • -Transitions depending on amount of urine in the bladder
    • -Tall = full of urine
    • -Flat = little urine
  30. Muscle Tissue
    • -Is contractile so it has force and movement
    • -Is excitable so can conduct signals
  31. Types of Muscle Tissue
    • -Cardiac
    • -Smooth
    • -Skeletal
  32. Connective Tissue
    • -Serves to connect other tissues
    • -Gives form and strength to organs
    • -Loose vs. Dense
  33. Types of Connective tissue
    • -Adipose (fat)
    • -Cartilage
    • -Bone
    • -Blood
  34. Nervous Tissue
    • -Send nervous signals
    •   -Excitable, electrical, chemical
    • -Glial cells support
  35. Functions of the Skeletal System
    • -Support
    • -Protection
    • -Movement
    • -Storage of minerals and lipids
    • -Blood cell formation
  36. Components of Skeletal system
    • -Bones
    • -Cartilage
    • -Teeth
    • -Joints
  37. Living structure of Bones
    • -Have blood and lymphatic vessels, nerves
    • -Subject to disease
    • -Undergo repair
    • -Adjust to changes in stress
  38. Composition of Bone
    KTOD
    • 45% Inorganic Matter
    •  -Calcium, Phosphorus
    • 30% Organic matter
    •   Collagen
    • 25% Water
    •   Blood supply
  39. Bone Structure
    • -Compact Bone
    • -Cancellous (spongy) Bone
    • -Medullary Cavity
    •   Red marrow vs Yellow Marrow
    •   -yellow marrow = old animals = fat deposition 
  40. Classification of Bones
    • -Long
    • -Short
    • -Flat
    • -Irregular
    • -Sesamoid
  41. Shape of long bone
    • -Epiphysis: Ends of the bone (-ses if plural)
    • -Diaphysis: Shaft of the bone with surrounds the medullary cavity
    • -Articular Cartilage: Cushoins ends of bone & allows for movement
    • -Epiphyseal Plate: Areas made of cartilage allowing for growth of the bone
  42. Function of Long Bones
    • -Act as levers
    • -Aid in support, locomotion, Prehension
    • -Ex: Bones of Extremities
    •   *Forelimb - Humerus, Radius, Ulna
    •   *Hindlimb - Femur, Tibia, Fibula
  43. Short Bones
    • -Cube like structure
    • -No single marrow cavity
    • -Compact bone surface with a cancellous bone center with spaces filled with marrow
    • -Ex: Carpals(knee) & Tarsals(hock)
  44. Function of Short Bones
    • -Variety of movements, gliding & sliding
    • -Absorb shock/ concussion
    • -Found in complex joints
    •  Ex: Carpus & Tarsus
  45. Flat Bones
    • -No diaphysis or epiphysis
    • -Inner framework of cancellous bone sandwiched between compact bone
    • -2 plates: Lamina externa & lamina interna
  46. Function of Flat Bones
    • -Protect vital organs:
    •   Brain(Skull)
    •   Heart & Lungs (Scapula& Ribs)
    •   Urinary/ Reproductive organs (Pelvic bones)
    • -Provide large areas of attachment of muscles
  47. Irregular Bones
    • -Unpaired bones on the median plane
    • -Spongy bone surrounded by compact bone
    • -Offer protection, support, and muscular attachment
    •  Ex: Vertebrae
  48. Sesamoid Bones
    • -Occur along the course of tendons
    • -Help in reducing friction, increase leverage or change the direction of pull
    •   Ex: Patella (Kneecap)
  49. Visceral Bones
    • -Formed in the soft organs
    • -Os penis-bone in the penis of dogs
    • -Os cordis-bone in the heart of cattle
    • -Os rostri-bone in the snout of pigs
  50. Types of Skeletal Systems
    • -Axial
    • -Appendicular 
  51. Axial Skeletal System
    • -Includes all the bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
    • -Bones are involved in protection, support, and carrying other body parts
  52. Vertebral Column
    • -Composed of median unpaired irregular bones
    • -Vertebra - Body, Arch, and Process
    •   -Body: Cylindrical mass forming ventral pt & floor of foramen
    •   -Arch: Completes the foramen
    •   -Process: Articular/spinous
  53. Cervical Vertebrae
    • -Articular processes allow for range of motion
    • -All domestic animals have 7
  54. Thoracic Vertebrae
    • -Well developed spinous processes
    • -Costal fovea on adjacent thoracic vertebrae provide articulation with head of ribs
    •   -Withers of the horse
  55. Lumbar Vertebrae
    • -Larger flat transverse processes provide for more area of attachment
    • -Weight bearing vertebrae
  56. Sacral Vertebrae
    • -Fused to form a wedge shaped bone called sacrum
    • -Sacral foramina allows passage of spinal nerves
    • -Articulates with last lumbar vertebrae cranially
    • -Articulates with ilium to the hip
  57. Axial Skeleton Vertebral Formula
    • -CTLSCd (Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral, Caudal)
    •  -Horse: C7, T18, L6, S5, Cd15-20
    •  -Cow: C7, T13, L6, S5, Cd18-20
    •  -Sheep: C7, T13, L6-7, S4, Cd16-18
    •  -Pig: C7, T14-15, L6-7, S4, Cd20-23
  58. Ribs
    • -Form lateral wall of bony thorax
    • -# of pairs of ribs = # of thoracic vertebrae (usually)
    • -True ribs aka Sternal ribs are ones attached to sternum by costal cartilage
    • -False ribs aka Asternal ribs are caudal to sternal ribs
  59. Appendicular Skeleton
    • -Shoulder (Synarcosis) 
    •   (pectoral girdle-scapula)
    • -Fore limbs (Pectoral or Thoracic)
    •  (Humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges)
    • -Pelvis 
    •  (Pelvic girdle - ilium, ischium, pubis)
    • -Hind limbs (pelvic)
    •  (Femur, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges)
  60. Forelimb
    • -Scapula (shoulder blade)
    •   -Distal end of spine forms 'acromion process'
    • -Humerus
    •   -Shaft & 2 extremities
    •   -Proximal end bears a rounded head that articulates with scapula(shoulder joint)
    • -Humerus + Scapula = Shoulder Joint
  61. Forelimb Cont'd
    • -Radius & Ulna (Forearm)
    •   -Radius is larger
    •   - Ulna forms Olecranon process (point of elbow)
    •      -Horse; shaft of ulna is fused into radius
    •      -Ox, Sheep, Goat, Dogs, &Cats; complete ulna
    • -Carpus
    • -Metacarpus (Cannon)
    • -Digits (Fetlock, pastern)
  62. Os Coxae - Fusion of 3 Bones
    • Illium -Largest, dorsal most
    •  -Tuber sacrale, tuber coxae (point of hip)
    • Ischium - Forms the caudal part of the floor of pelvic cavity
    • Pubis - Smallest, forms cranial part of the floor
  63. Hindlimb
    • -Femur (Thigh bone)
    • -Tibia & Fibula
    • -Tarsus
    • -Metatarsus
    • -Digits
  64. Organic Components in Bone
    • 1.) Bone Cells
    • -Osteocytes
    • -Osteoblasts
    • -Osteoclasts
    • 2.)Osteoid      
    • -Organic part of matrix, collagen, polysaccharides
    • -Contributes to resilience & toughness of bones
  65. Inorganic Components of Bone
    • 1.) Calcium & Phosphorus salts (80% is calcium phosphate, rest are calcium carbonate and magnesium phosphate)
    • 2.) Provide hardness and rigidity to the bone
  66. Soft bone
    • -Inorganic component removed by soaking in dilute acid
    • -Decalcified bone, retains structure
  67. Brittle Bone
    • -Organic component removed by charring
    • -Inorganic salts remain
    • -Prone to breaking
  68. Osteoblasts
    • -Bone forming cells found in all bone surfaces
    • -Synthesize and secrete collagen fibers and other organic components of bone matrix
    • -Serve as framework for deposition of Ca & phosphate salts
  69. Osteocytes
    -Mature, nondividing osteoblast surrounded by matrix, lying within lacunae
  70. Osteoclasts
    • -Giant multinucleate cells
    • -Responsible for the active erosion of bone minerals
    • -Contain large number of mitochondria & lysosomes 
  71. Osteonal System
       aka Haversian System
    • -Compact bone consists primarily of laminated tubes - Osteonal systems
    • -Each osteon consists of a central canal (blood vessels and nerves) surrounded by circular plates of bone (lamellae)
    • -Osteons are added on the periphery of the shaft of the bone (increasing diameter)

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