Biological Psychology Ch.1-4

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Biological Psychology Ch.1-4
2013-01-30 23:26:48

Biological Psychology by James Kalat, 11th Ed
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  1. A gene that shows a strong effect in either the homozygous or heterozygous condition.
    Dominant Gene
  2. Fraternal (non-identical) twins derived from two eggs
    Dizygotic twins
  3. A double-stranded molecule that is part of the chromosomes
    Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
  4. Biological catalysts that regulate chemical reactions in the body.
  5. A field that deals with changes in gene expression without modification of the DNA sequence.
  6. A change over generations in the frequencies of various genes in a population.
  7. Understanding in terms of the evolutionary history of a structure or behavior.
    Evolutionary Explanation
  8. A field that deals with how behaviors evolved
    Evolutionary Psychology
  9. The spreading of genes; number of copies of one's genes that ENDURE in later generations.
  10. Understanding WHY a structure or behavior evolved as it did.
    Functional Explanation
  11. Units of heredity that maintain their structural identity from one generation to another.
  12. Philosophical question as to WHY & HOW brain activity becomes conscious.
    Hard Problem
  13. Estimate of the degree to which variation in a characteristic depends on genetic variations in a given population.
  14. Having 2 unlike genes for a given trait
  15. Having 2 identical genes for a given characteristic
  16. Selection for a gene that benefits the individual's relatives
    Kin Selection
  17. A theory of evolution through the inheritance of ACQUIRED characteristics
    Lamarckian Evolution
  18. Question about the relationship between mental experience and brain activity
    Mind-Brain Problem 
  19. Twins derived from one egg
    Monozygotic Twins
  20. Understanding in terms how a structure or behavior develops
    Ontogenetic Explanation
  21. A genetic inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine.
    Phenylketonuria (PKU)
  22. Understanding in terms of the activity of the brain and other organs
    Physiological Explanation
  23. One that shows effects ONLY in the homozygous condition
    Recessive Gene
  24. Helping others who may be helpful in return
    Reciprocal Altruism
  25. A single-strand chemical
    Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
  26. Watching for danger and warning others 
    Sentinel Behavior
  27. Gene that exerts its effects primarly in one sex because of activation by androgens or estrogens, although members of both sexes may have the gene.
    Sex-Limited Gene
  28. Gene on either the X or Y Chromosome
    Sex-Linked Gene
  29. A time when the membrane is unable to produce an action potential.
    Absolute Refractory Period
  30. Messages sent by axons

    ~0 > Positive Number
    Action Potentials
  31. A protein-mediated process that expends energy to enable a molecule to cross a membrane
    Active Transport
  32. An axon that brings info INTO a structure
    Afferent Axon
  33. Principle that the amplitude and velocity of an action potential are independent of the stimulus that initiated it
    All or None Law
  34. Star-Shaped glia that synchronize the activity of the axons
  35. Thin fiber of constant diameter; the neuron's INFO sender
  36. A swelling where the axon exits the cell body (soma)
    Axon Hillock
  37. Mechanism that excludes most chemicals from the brain
    Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB)
  38. Structure containing the nucleus, ribosomes, and mitochondria
    Cell body (soma)
  39. Difference in distribution of ions across the neuron's membrane.
    Concentration Gradient
  40. Short outgrowths that increase the surface area available for synapses
    Dendritic Spines
  41. To reduce polarization toward zero across a membrane
    Depolarize (depolarization)
  42. Neuron that carries info AWAY from a structure (exits)
    Efferent Axon
  43. Differnece in electrical charges between the inside and outside of the cell
    Electrical Gradient
  44. Network of thin tubes that transport newly synthesized proteins to other locations
    Endoplasmic Reticulum
  45. Type of cell in the nervous system that, in contrast to neurons, does not conduct impulses over long distances.
  46. A simple sugar
  47. A membrane potential that varies in magnitude in proportion to the intensity of the stimulus
    Graded Potential
  48. Increased polarization across a membrane
  49. Neuron whose axons and dendrites are all confined WITHIN a given structure
  50. Neuron whose axons and dendrites are all confined within a given structure (another word for interneuron)
    Intrinsic Neuron
  51. Drugs that attach to the sodium channels of the membrane, stopping action potentials
    Local Anesthetics
  52. Neurons without an axon
    Local Neurons
  53. Structure that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment
  54. Cells that remove waste material and other microorganisms from the nervous system
  55. Structure that performs metabolic activities
  56. Neuron that receives excitation from other neurons and conducts impulses to a muscle

    ~Talks to muscles
    Motor Neuron
  57. An insulating material composed of fats and proteins
  58. Insulating material that covers vertebrate axon
    Myelin Sheath
  59. *ON EXAM*
    What is the purpose of the myelin sheath?
    Increases Conduction of neural impulse
  60. Axons covered with myelin sheaths
    Myelinated Axons
  61. Cells that receive info & transmit it to other cells
  62. Interruptions in the myelin sheath of the vertebrate axons
    Nodes of Ranvier
  63. Structure that contains the chromosomes
  64. Glia cells that build myelin sheaths

    ~Brain & Spinal Chord
  65. (end bulb) point where an axon releases chemicals
    Presynaptic Terminal
  66. Transmission of an action potential down an axon
    Propagation of the action potential
  67. Cells that guide the migration of neurons and the growth of axons and dendrites during embryological developement
    Radial Glia
  68. Time when the cell RESISTS the production of further action potentials
    Refractory period
  69. Time after the absolute refractory period that requires a stronger stimulus to initiate an action potential
    Relative Refractory Period
  70. Sites for cell synthesization of new protein molecules
  71. The jumping of action potentials from node to node
    Saltatory Conduction
  72. Glia cells that build myelin sheath (Periphery Nervous System)
    Schwann Cells
  73. Ability of some chemicals to pass more freely than others thru a membrane
    Selectively permeability
  74. Neuron that is highly sensitive to a specific type of stimulation

    ~get info fr the brain
    Sensory Neuron
  75. Mechanism that actively transports sodium ions out of the cell while drawing in 2 potassium ions
    Sodium-Potassium Pump
  76. A B1 Vitamin necessary to use Glucose
  77. Min. amount of membrane depolarization necessary to trigger an action potential
    Threshold of excitation
  78. Membrane channel whose permeability to sodium or some other ion depends on the voltage difference across the membrane
    Voltage-gated channel
  79. The resting potential of a neuron is
    70 milliVolts
  80. Two types of Glia:
    • Astorcytes
    • Radial Glia
  81. This syndrome is marked by severe memory impairment from alcohol.
    Korsakoff's Syndrome
  82. He demonstrated that communication between one neuron and the next differs from communication along a single axon.
    Charles Sherrington
  83. Sherrington concluded thata some process was slowing conduction through the reflex and he inferred that the delay must occur where one neuron _________ with another.
  84. What evidence led Sherrington to conclude that transmission at a synapse is different from transmission along an axon?
    Sherrington found that the VELOCITY of conduction thru a reflex arc was significantly slower than the velocity of an action potential along an axon. Some delay must occur at the junction btw one neuron and the next.
  85. Acids containing an AMINE group (NH2)
    amino acids
  86. Compounds that contain a catechol and an amine group
  87. a protein that is reabsorbed at the presynaptic terminal
    Dopamine transporter
  88. Graded depolarization (EPSP)
    Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP)
  89. A release of NT from the presynaptic neuron into the synaptic cleft that separates one neuron from another
  90. A protein coupled to guanosine triphosphate (GTP, an energy storing molecule
    G Protein
  91. A direct contact of one neuron with another, enabling electrical transmission
    Gap Junction
  92. One of the categories of NT, including nitric oxide & others
  93. temporary hyperpolarization of a membrane (IPSP)
    Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential
  94. The effect of NT depends on it's receptor on postsynaptic cells. There are 2 Types:
    • Ionotropic
    • Ligand-Gated Channels
  95. Synaptic effects that depend on the rapid opening of some kind of gate in the membrane.
    Ionotropic effects
  96. Channel that opens when a NT attaches
    Ligand-Gated Channels
  97. Enzyme that converts catecholamines & serotonin into synaptically inactive forms
    MAO (Monoamine Oxidase)
  98. Hormone that influences both circadian & circannual rhythms
  99. A sequence of metabolic reactions that produce slow and long-lasting effects at a synapse
    Metabotropic effect
  100. Chemicals formed by a change in certain amino acids
  101. A kind of neuron that releases huge amounts of GABA all at once, producing widespread inhibition
    Neurogliaform cell
  102. Chain of Amino acids
  103. Chemicals released by neurons that affect other neurons
    Neurotransmitters (NT)
  104. A gas released by many small local neurons
    Nitric Oxide (NO)
  105. Chemical contained in Marijuana leaves
    • Delta9-THC
    • Tetrahydrocannabinol
  106. Chemical that binds to cannabinoid receptors
    • 2-AG
    • Arachidonylglycerol
  107. A chemical similar to an amino acid, except that it includes an N(CH3)3 group instead of an NH2 group
  108. A chemical released from the anterior pituitary gland, which enhances metabolic activity and elevates blood levels of sugar
    • ACTH
    • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  109. A drug that mimics or increases the effects of a NT
  110. Blocks NT
  111. Alcoholism; the habitual use of alcohol despite medical/social harm
    Alcohol dependence
  112. Adrenal hormone that cause the body to retain salt
  113. A drug that blocks reuptake of dopamine and other NT
  114. Chemicals related to D9 & THC
  115. a drug that blocks reuptate of dopamine
  116. enzyme that breaks down excess dopamine into inactive chemicals that cannot stimulate the dopamine receptors
    • COMT
    • catechol-o-methyltransferase
  117. Portion of the pituitary gland, composed of glandular tissue 
    Anterior Pituitary
  118. An endocrine gland attached to the base of the hypothalamus
    Pituitary Gland
  119. Portion of the pituitary gland, which releases hormones synthesized by the hypothalamus
    Posterior Pituitary
  120. Neuron that receives the transmission from another neuron
    Postsynaptic Neuron
  121. Neuron that delivers transmission to another neuron
    Presynaptic Neuron
  122. Hormones composed of long chains of amino acids
    Protein hormones
  123. A category of chemicals including ADENOSINE and several of its derivatives
  124. A circuit from sensory neuron to muscle response
    Reflex arc
  125. Automatic muscular responses to stimuli
  126. Hormone released by the hypothalamus that flows thru the blood to the anterior pituitary
    Releasing hormone
  127. Reabsorption of a NT by the presynaptic terminal
  128. A chemical that, when activated by a NT, initiates communication to many areas within the neuron
    Second Messenger
  129. Neuron that is highly sensitive to a specific type of stimulation
    Sensory Neuron
  130. A periodic production of action potentials even without a synaptic input

    ~summation over space
    Spatial Summation
  131. drugs that increase excitement, alertness, and activity while elevating mood and decreasing fatigue
    Stimulant drugs
  132. A NT released by pain axons in the spinal cord 
    Substance P
  133. a specialized gap as a point of communication btw two neurons
  134. A cumulative effect of repeated stimuli within a brief time

    ~Period over time, stimulations
    Temporal Summation
  135. Min. amount of membrane depolarization necessary to trigger an action potential
    Threshold of Excitation
  136. Ion channel that opens temporarily when a NT binds to it
    Transmitter-Gated Channel
  137. Special membrane protein where reuptake occurs in the NT
  138. Alcohol Abuse with gradual onset; weak genetic predisposition
    Type 1 (A) Alcoholism
  139. Alcohol abuse with a rapid onset and strong genetic basis
    Type 2 (B) Alcoholism
  140. Tiny nearly sperical packets filled with NT molecules
  141. Membrane channel whose permeability to sodium (or some other ion) depends on the v voltage difference across the membrane
    Voltage gated Channel
  142. The space between post/presynaptic terminal is called________ ________. 
    Synaptic Cleft
  143. Indoleamines
  144. Catecholamines
  145. Below are the Anatomy of the ______ _____
    Nervous System
  146. Towards the stomach (Nervous System)
  147. Towards the back (Nervous System)
  148. Above (Nervous System)
  149. Below (Nervous System)
  150. Middle (Nervous System)
  151. Sides (Nervous System)
  152. sensory info (NS)
    Dorsal Root
  153. Motor Info (NS)
    Ventral Root
  154. the brain and the spinal chord 
    Central Nervous System
  155. *On Exam*
    The Brain has 3 Parts:
    • Hindbrain
    • Midbrain
    • Forebrain
  156. Hindbrain is the Posterior part that includes:
    • Medulla
    • Pons
    • Cerebellum
  157. Midbrain is the Medial part that includes:
    • tectum
    • superior colliculus
    • inferior colliculus
    • substantia nigra
  158. Forebrain has 2 cerebral hemispheres (L&R) that includes sensory info in:
    • Thalamus
    • Hypothalamus
  159. Sends axons to much of the forebrain, modifying the brain's readiness to respond to stimuli
    Raphe System
  160. A large hindbrain structure with many deep folds
  161. Has descending and ascending portions
    Reticular Formation
  162. Lies anterior and ventral to the medulla, it contains nuclei for several cranial nerves.
  163. Just above the spinal cord, and can be regarded as an enlarged extension of the spinal cord to the skull.
  164. Control sensations from the head, muscle movements in the head, and parasympathetic output to the organs.
    Cranial Nerves
  165. A network of nerves that prepare organs for vigorous activity, consists of chains of ganglia just to the left and right of the spinal cord's central regions.

    ~Excited "Fight/Flight"
    Smpathetic NS
  166. Facilitates vegetative, nonemergency responses.

    ~relaxed, calm
    Parasympathetic NS 
  167. Sensory nerves enter which sides of the spinal cord? Dorsal or Ventral?
  168. Forms a border around the brainstem
    Limbic System
  169. endocrine (Hormone-producing) gland attached to the base of the hypothalamus by a stalk that contains neurons, blood vessels, and connective tissue.
    Pituitary Gland
  170. A group of subcortical structures lateral to the thalamus, include trhee major structures:

    ~Caudate Nucleus
    Globus Pallidus
    Basal Ganglia
  171. Receives input from the hypothalamus and basal ganglia and sends axons that release Acetylcholine to widespread areas in the cerebral cortex
    Nucleus Basalis
  172. A large structure between the thalamus and the cerebral cortex, mostly toward the posterior of the forebrain
  173. posterior (Caudal) end of the cortex. The main target for VISUAL info
    Occipital Lobe
  174. Lateral portion of each hemisphere, near the temples. Primary cortical target for AUDITORY information.
    Temporal Lobe
  175. This disease has no readiness to movement bc SUBSTANTIA NIGRA is not working properly.
    Parkinsons Disease
  176. The brain is divided in 4 Lobes:
    • Occipital - back - visual
    • Temporal - side - hearing
    • Parietal - in btw - sensory/motor
    • Frontal - front - memory
  177. The brain has NO pain receptors, only ______ do.
  178. Empty spaces in brain