Phonetics- Exam 1

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Phonetics- Exam 1
2013-02-04 12:35:25
CMDS 3410

Chapters 1, 2, and 3
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  1. The study of the production and perception of speech sounds. 
  2. Involves the study of sound changes of words 
    Historical phonetics
  3. Involves the study of the function of the individual speech organs during the process of speaking
    Physiological phonetics
  4. Focuses on the differences in frequency, intensity, and duration of the various consonants and vowels. 
    Acoustic phonetics
  5. The study of a listener's psychoacoustic response (perception) of speech sounds in terms of loudness, pitch, perceived length, and quality. 
    Perceptual phonetics
  6. Entails the laboratory study of physiological, acoustic, and perceptual phonetics. 
    Experimental phonetics
  7. Involves the study and transcription of speech sound disorders. 
    Clinical phonetics
  8. The systematic organization of speech sounds in the production of language; Focuses on the linguistic rules that are used to specify the manner in which speech sounds are organized and combined into meaningful units, which are then combined to form syllables, words and sentences.
  9. What is the difference between the fields of phonetics and phonology?
    Phonetics focuses on the study of speech sounds, their acoustic and perceptual characteristics, and how they are produced by the speech organs; whereas phonology focuses on the linguistic (phonological) rules that are used to specify the manner in which speech sounds are organized and combined into meaningful units, which are then combined to form syllables, words, and sentences.
  10. This is designed to represent the sounds of words, not their spellings; without this it would be almost impossible to capture on paper an accurate representation of speech sound disorders of individuals seeking professional remediation.
    International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
  11. Hexadecimal sequence of four numbers (0-9) and/or letters (a-f) to identify a character
    Code point 
  12. A universal character set that would represent all of the world's languages.
    Unicode font
  13. What are three ways to enter IPA symbols from a Unicode font into a document?
    • 1. make use of software that creates an alternate keyboard layout
    • 2. enter the code point for each IPA symbol
    • 3. insert each symbol individually by using character maps available as part of the Windows and Macintosh operating systems
  14. A variation of language based on geographical area as well as social and ethic group membership. It involves pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary. This is important to understand when planning treatment.
  15. Printed letters
  16. An alphabet that contains a separate letter for each individual sound in a language; maintains a one-to-one relationship between a sound and a particular letter
    Phonetic alphabet
  17. Different letter sequences or patterns that represent the same sound.
  18. Pairs of letters often represent one sound because there are simply not enough single alphabet letters to represent all sounds of English; may be the same two letters or two completely different letters
  19. The smallest unit of language capable of carrying meaning.
  20. A morpheme that can stand alone and still carry meaning.
    Free morpheme
  21. Morpheme that has no meaning when it stands alone; they are added to other words
    Bound morpheme
  22. Each symbol represents one specific speech sound; a speech sound that is capable of differentiating morphemes, and therefore is capable of distinguishing meaning; sound segment that has the linguistic function of distinguishing morphemes; can distinguish meaning
  23. A change of only one phoneme results in the creation of two morphemes with completely different meanings. Some of these words differ by only one speech sound even though spelling shows more than one letter change. These words that vary by only one phoneme are known as _______________.
    Minimal pairs
  24. Variants of each phoneme due to production, dialect, rate, other paralinguistic factors, but stil recognizable as a production of that phoneme
  25. Two allophones that are not interchangeable due to the phonetic constraints of the vowel in each word.
    complementary distribution
  26. A basic building block of language that may be composed of either one vowel alone, or a vowel in combination with one or more consonants; the smallest unit of speech production
  27. All of the consonants that precede a vowel
  28. two or three contiguous consonants in the same syllable
    consonant cluster
  29. a syllable is divided into two components the nucleus and the coda
  30. typically a vowel
  31. the consonant or consonant clusters that follow the nucleus of the syllable
  32. when consonants take on the role of vowels
    syllabic consonants
  33. syllables that end with a vowel phoneme
    Open syllable
  34. syllables that end with a consonant phoneme
    closed syllables
  35. Increased emphasis in the production of one syllable; created by an increase in muscular energy; longer in duration, higher in pitch, louder
    word stress
  36. Words with more than one syllable will have what?
    Primary and secondary stress
  37. Word stress also helps differentiate words that are spelled te same but vary in part of speech
    word class
  38. identification of meaningful units.
    Morphemic transcription
  39. Transcription of speech making no attempt to transcribe allophonic variation; identification of sound elements that have linguistic significance in speaker’s language
    Phonemic transcription or broad transcription
  40. Transcription that accounts for modifications in the production of vowel or consonant phonemes; uses diacritics; identification of allophonic variants in a speaker’s pattern of sounds, often using diacritic marks to further describe production aspects
    Narrow transcription or phonetic transcription
  41. specialized symbols
  42. 1. Word initial position
    2. Word medial position
    3. Word final position
    4. Syllable releasing sound
    5. Syllable arresting sound
    6. Prevocalic sound
    7. Postvocalic sound
    8. Geminate sounds
    9. Open syllable
    10. Closed syllable
    • 1. sound located at beginning of word
    • 2. sound located within word
    • 3. sound located at end of word
    • 4. syllable-initial sound
    • 5. syllable-final sound
    • 6. the consonant (usually) immediately preceding a vowel
    • 7. the consonant (usually) immediately following a vowel
    • 8. two adjacent sounds that are the same (e. g.,“bookkeeper”, “hot time”)
    • 9. one that does not end in a consonant
    • 10. one that ends in a consonant
  43. Chest cavity 
    thoracic cavity 
  44. A major muscle that separates the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity
  45. What are the three systems of speech production?
    Respiratory system, laryngeal system, and the articulatory and resonatory system 
  46. provides the force (breath stream) used to create speech; lungs, rib cage, and diaphragm
    respiratory system
  47. the phonatory system, providing phonated sound (voicing; voiced sounds); inferior to trachea and superior to hyoid 
    laryngeal system
  48. What are the laryngeal system structures?
    Epiglottis, thyroid, hyoid, arytenoids, cricoid, corniculates, trachea 
  49. raise and lower the larynx