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The study of the production and perception of speech sounds.
Involves the study of sound changes of words
Involves the study of the function of the individual speech organs during the process of speaking
Focuses on the differences in frequency, intensity, and duration of the various consonants and vowels.
The study of a listener's psychoacoustic response (perception) of speech sounds in terms of loudness, pitch, perceived length, and quality.
Entails the laboratory study of physiological, acoustic, and perceptual phonetics.
Involves the study and transcription of speech sound disorders.
The systematic organization of speech sounds in the production of language; Focuses on the linguistic rules that are used to specify the manner in which speech sounds are organized and combined into meaningful units, which are then combined to form syllables, words and sentences.
What is the difference between the fields of phonetics and phonology?
Phonetics focuses on the study of speech sounds, their acoustic and perceptual characteristics, and how they are produced by the speech organs; whereas phonology focuses on the linguistic (phonological) rules that are used to specify the manner in which speech sounds are organized and combined into meaningful units, which are then combined to form syllables, words, and sentences.
This is designed to represent the sounds of words, not their spellings; without this it would be almost impossible to capture on paper an accurate representation of speech sound disorders of individuals seeking professional remediation.
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
Hexadecimal sequence of four numbers (0-9) and/or letters (a-f) to identify a character
A universal character set that would represent all of the world's languages.
What are three ways to enter IPA symbols from a Unicode font into a document?
- 1. make use of software that creates an alternate keyboard layout
- 2. enter the code point for each IPA symbol
- 3. insert each symbol individually by using character maps available as part of the Windows and Macintosh operating systems
A variation of language based on geographical area as well as social and ethic group membership. It involves pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary. This is important to understand when planning treatment.
An alphabet that contains a separate letter for each individual sound in a language; maintains a one-to-one relationship between a sound and a particular letter
Different letter sequences or patterns that represent the same sound.
Pairs of letters often represent one sound because there are simply not enough single alphabet letters to represent all sounds of English; may be the same two letters or two completely different letters
The smallest unit of language capable of carrying meaning.
A morpheme that can stand alone and still carry meaning.
Morpheme that has no meaning when it stands alone; they are added to other words
Each symbol represents one specific speech sound; a speech sound that is capable of differentiating morphemes, and therefore is capable of distinguishing meaning; sound segment that has the linguistic function of distinguishing morphemes; can distinguish meaning
A change of only one phoneme results in the creation of two morphemes with completely different meanings. Some of these words differ by only one speech sound even though spelling shows more than one letter change. These words that vary by only one phoneme are known as _______________.
Variants of each phoneme due to production, dialect, rate, other paralinguistic factors, but stil recognizable as a production of that phoneme
Two allophones that are not interchangeable due to the phonetic constraints of the vowel in each word.
A basic building block of language that may be composed of either one vowel alone, or a vowel in combination with one or more consonants; the smallest unit of speech production
All of the consonants that precede a vowel
two or three contiguous consonants in the same syllable
a syllable is divided into two components the nucleus and the coda
typically a vowel
the consonant or consonant clusters that follow the nucleus of the syllable
when consonants take on the role of vowels
syllables that end with a vowel phoneme
syllables that end with a consonant phoneme
Increased emphasis in the production of one syllable; created by an increase in muscular energy; longer in duration, higher in pitch, louder
Words with more than one syllable will have what?
Primary and secondary stress
Word stress also helps differentiate words that are spelled te same but vary in part of speech
identification of meaningful units.
Transcription of speech making no attempt to transcribe allophonic variation; identification of sound elements that have linguistic significance in speaker’s language
Phonemic transcription or broad transcription
Transcription that accounts for modifications in the production of vowel or consonant phonemes; uses diacritics; identification of allophonic variants in a speaker’s pattern of sounds, often using diacritic marks to further describe production aspects
Narrow transcription or phonetic transcription
1. Word initial position
2. Word medial position
3. Word final position
4. Syllable releasing sound
5. Syllable arresting sound
6. Prevocalic sound
7. Postvocalic sound
8. Geminate sounds
9. Open syllable
10. Closed syllable
- 1. sound located at beginning of word
- 2. sound located within word
- 3. sound located at end of word
- 4. syllable-initial sound
- 5. syllable-final sound
- 6. the consonant (usually) immediately preceding a vowel
- 7. the consonant (usually) immediately following a vowel
- 8. two adjacent sounds that are the same (e. g.,“bookkeeper”, “hot time”)
- 9. one that does not end in a consonant
- 10. one that ends in a consonant
A major muscle that separates the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity
What are the three systems of speech production?
Respiratory system, laryngeal system, and the articulatory and resonatory system
provides the force (breath stream) used to create speech; lungs, rib cage, and diaphragm
the phonatory system, providing phonated sound (voicing; voiced sounds); inferior to trachea and superior to hyoid
What are the laryngeal system structures?
Epiglottis, thyroid, hyoid, arytenoids, cricoid, corniculates, trachea
raise and lower the larynx