AICP Cards 1.csv

Card Set Information

Author:
dickharney
ID:
196926
Filename:
AICP Cards 1.csv
Updated:
2013-01-31 14:13:41
Tags:
AICP
Folders:

Description:
First Set of AICP Flashcards
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user dickharney on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. "What is the ""White City""? Who designed it? When?"
    The World's Columbian Exposition (Chicago World's Fair). Daniel Burnham was a principal designer. The Exposition was held in 1893 (400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World).
  2. What is the planning significance of Central Park? Who was it designer & builder?
    "It was created in the mid 1800s as an a way to address the lack of green space in cities. Designed by Frederick Law Olmsted
  3. "What is the ""Cumberland Road""? When was its built?"
    "The ""National Road"" built by the Federal gov't to tie the east and west together in 1811. Ran from Cumberland
  4. What were the 3 major ports of immigration in 1811.
    "Chicago
  5. What are the most significant laws of the Public Health Movement?
    NYC Tenement Law of 1867 and a San Francisco ordinance that ended slaughter houses in 1867.
  6. Why did the Public Health Movement die out?
    The Public Health Movement died out in the 1920s as local governments were given authority to regulate issues.
  7. Explain what the S - T - R system is and how it was used.
    "S - T - R : Section
  8. "What was the intent of the ""Land Ordinance of 1785""? What is its planning significance?"
    "The rectangular land survey of the Old Northwest was created to provide a systematic way to divide and distribute land to people. It is called the ""largest single act of national planning in our history."""
  9. What did the Louisiana Purchase do? What year?
    "Secured 828
  10. What is the importance of the Erie Canal? What year was it opened?
    Opened a western shipping channel from NYC to the Great Lakes. Opened in 1825.
  11. What year was the 1st tenement housing built in Manhattan?
    1855
  12. "What was the ""Homestead Act of 1862"""
    "Federal legislation that promoted western development by providing any family a 1/4 of twnshp (160 acres). It was given to them if they lived there for 5 years and built a house
  13. "What was the ""Morrell Act""? Year?"
    "Federal legislation of 1862 that authorized land grants to the states so that they could use the proceeds to establish colleges in agriculture
  14. What was the 1st group to push for higher sanitary and housing standards in NYC? Year?
    New York Council Hygiene of the Citizen's Association in 1864
  15. Explain what the Transcontinental Railroad was? Year?
    "The connection of the western and eastern railroad lines (Union Pacific and Central Pacific) at Promontory Point
  16. What instigated the first tenement legislation in NYC? Year? How many tenement houses existed at that time?
    "A 1867 report by the NY Council of Hygiene of the Citizen's Association. 15
  17. What are the major points addressed by the NYC tenement law of 1867?
    "Required that all tenements have: 1) window or ventilation in every sleeping room
  18. "When was the 1st ""Dumbbell"" tenement built? What was it?"
    Built in 1879 it is was a multifamily style of housing that was shaped like a dumbell
  19. What was the Public Health Movement?
    Advocated worker safety and public health as a result of poor factory conditions. Also addressed slum living conditions marked by open sewage in the streets & disease.
  20. When was the 1st US Geological Survey Completed?
    1879
  21. What prompted the founding of the Sierra Club? Year? By whom?
    "The need to promote
  22. What was the General Land Law Revision Act? Year?
    Gave the US President power to create forest preserves by proclamation in 1891
  23. Explain the significance of the Garden City Movement. Name the 1st 2 cities.
    Ebenezer Howard's city design which extolled the virtue of nature over cities and sought a return to pre-industrial small villages. Letchworth & Welwyn.
  24. What book is created with starting the Garden City Movement? Year?
    "Ebenezer Howard's ""To-Morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform
  25. What event propelled the City Beautiful Movement? Year?
    "The design of the World's Columbian Exposition (Chicago World's Fair)
  26. What was the first zoning ordinance? When?
    San Francisco passed the land use zoning ordinance on the location of obnoxious uses in 1867.
  27. When was the first census conducted? Who did it?
    "1790 - 1792
  28. What book is created with starting housing reforms?
    "Jacob Riis's ""How the Other Half Lives"" publish in 1890 about NYC slums."
  29. "What was the ""Forest Management Act""? Year?"
    Federal legislation which allowed the Secretary of the Interior to manage forest preserves. 1891.
  30. NAFTA
    "Established a trade bloc (free trade agreement) implemented January 1
  31. Trade Bloc
    "A large free trade area formed by one or more tax
  32. Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP)
    "Administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provides grants to States
  33. Hazard Mitigation Grant Program Purpose
    Reduce the loss of life and property due to natural disasters and to enable mitigation measures to be implemented during the immediate recovery from a disaster.
  34. e-Government
    "Refers to government???s use of information and communication technology (ICT) to exchange information and services with citizens
  35. e-Government
    "Includes internet
  36. Urban Growth Boundary (UGB)
    "A regional boundary
  37. Green Belt
    "A policy or land use designation used in land use planning to retain areas of largely undeveloped
  38. Transfer of Development Rights (TDR)
    "A method for protecting land by transferring the ""rights to develop"" from one area and giving them to another."
  39. Purchase of Development Rights (PDR)
    "A method for protecting land
  40. Dillon's Rule
    "Municipal governments only have the powers that are expressly granted to them by the state legislature
  41. Vested Right
    "Refers to when a developer/property owner has the right to develop a property - if they have a building permit
  42. Zoning Text Amendment
    Changes the rules regarding the use and development of every property in a specified zoning district
  43. Zoning map amendment
    Change the zoning from residential to commercial on the property
  44. Variance
    "an administrative exception to land use regulations
  45. Replat
    "Any change in any street layout
  46. Kelo v. City of New London (2005)
    Affirmed the use of eminent domain for economic development
  47. Lingle v. Chevron (2005)
    "Jettisoned the ""substantially advances"" test for takings"
  48. Highest population density according to the 2000
    "New York has a population density of 10
  49. Americans with Disabilities Act
    1990
  50. Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA)
    Was adopted in 1972 to provides funding for coastal state programs designed to coordinate and regulate specific activities within defined coastal zones
  51. National Environmental Policy Act of 1969
    Required both the private and public sectors to conform to certain environmental standards
  52. Enterprise fund
    Established to manage the revenues and expenditures of a golf course
  53. UGB
    Urban Growth Boundary is the most effective method for preventing development in specified geographic areas.
  54. Christopher Stone's book Should Trees Have Standing
    "The Sierra Club v. Morton
  55. Indian Reorganization Act (1934)
    Allowed Native Americans to adopt a constitution and organize for their common welfare
  56. City Beautiful Movement
    "Includes civic design as a primary principle. Cities such as DC and Chicago had large parks
  57. Fred French Investing Co. v. City of New York
    Found that Transfer of Development Rights is an inappropriate method to compensate the landowner for a taking by the City of New York.
  58. Fiscal impact analysis
    Best used for a single development project to determine the revenues and expenses of the project.
  59. New Urbanism
    Peter Calthorpe
  60. Advocacy Planning in Cleveland
    Krumholz
  61. Smart growth
    Promotes a variety of housing choices to allow people of all income and household types to have a place to live.
  62. Section 8
    This housing program provides funds to pay a portion of the rent for low-income households. The amount paid depends on the household income
  63. Concentric Circle Theory
    "Ernest Burgess (1925). Cities grow in a series of outward rings. Centered by a business district surrounded by a transition zone filled with low-income
  64. Neotraditional Development
    "Calls for nodes of activity that provide Mixed Use
  65. BART
    "1972
  66. Plat
    "Consists of a map
  67. First shopping center
    "Northgate Shopping Center
  68. "First modern
    enclosed regional shopping mall"
  69. Edge City
    "Relatively new concentration of business
  70. Daylighting
    "the practice of placing windows
  71. Transect
    A term used by New Urbanist town planners to refer to the varieties of land use from an urban core to a rural boundary.
  72. Workforce Housing
    "Can refer to almost any housing
  73. What type of land accounts for about 2/3 of the privately held lands in the US?
    Agricultural
  74. Empowerment Zone
    An economically depresed area designated for governmental subsidies and tax incentives.
  75. 43560
    Square feet in an acre.
  76. Advocacy Planner
    Serves a variety of groups with different goals and interests.
  77. Cincinnati
    First city to adopt a comprehemsive plan
  78. Primary purpose of a fiscal impact analysis
    To assist city or county officials determine if a project will generate sufficient revenue to defray necessary public service costs
  79. Important elements of a Historic Preservation Program
    "Educational materials for historic building owners
  80. LULU
    Locally Undesirable Land Uses such as waste dump
  81. Megalopolis
    An area with multiple-cities with a combined population of more than 10 million inhabitants
  82. Which city was home to the first Council of Government?
    Chicago
  83. Which of the following cities experienced the greatest population decrease between 1990 and 2000?
    Detroit
  84. Metropolitan Planning Organizations
    "Responsible for reviewing and coordinating programs affecting the region
  85. The Growing Smart Legislative Guidebook
    Created by the APA to encourage states to revise their standard state zoning enabling acts?
  86. President Clinton did which of the following in 2000?
    Created eight new national monuments.
  87. President George H. Bush did which of the following in 1994?
    Signed NAFTA legislation
  88. Vieux Carre Commission
    "Was the first Historic Preservation Commission for the French Quarter in New Orleans
  89. Lowering a thermostat by 1 degree Fahrenheit can reduce a heating bill by
    0.03
  90. The amount of goods and serviced produced in the United States during a year
    Gross Domestic Product
  91. How many federally recognized Native American tribes are there in the United States?
    562
  92. Non-IRA tribes
    Did not organize under the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act.
  93. How much solid waste does the typical household create?
    "Approximately 4.5 lbs. per person
  94. Regression
    The analysis between two or more variables (x) and (y).
  95. Urban Development Action Grant (UDAG) program
    "Established 1977 to help distressed communities develop economically. facilitates public-private partnerships
  96. Hoover Dam is located on the border of which states?
    Arizona & Nevada
  97. Which city had the first metropolitan plan in the United States?
    Chicago
  98. When was the first National Conference on City Planning?
    1909
  99. How is the official unemployment rate calculated?
    Individuals unemployed divided by individuals 16 years of age and older in the labor force
  100. Concentric Zone Theory
    "The use of ???invasion-succession??? in describing dynamics
  101. Indian Reorganization Act
    1934 - organization of Native Americans and allowed Native Americans to adopt a constitution and organize for their common welfare.
  102. Limnology
    "The study of (natural and manmade) lakes and ponds
  103. Census Tract
    "A small
  104. "New York City
    1916"
  105. The Morrill Act (1862)
    "Congress gave public land to each state to be sold for the establishment of ???engineering
  106. Zero Lot Line
    "A form of development where the the building is sited on one or more lot lines with no yard
  107. What year did the Panama Canal open?
    1914
  108. The first Council of Government was created in what year?
    1954
  109. Storm sewers are typically designed to handle up to what year flood?
    25
  110. Dezoning
    Reducing the intensity of zoning on a site.
  111. "Explain the ""Per Se"" test for takings"
    That there is a loss of all economically viable use of the land
  112. What was the Standard State Zoning Enabling Act?
    1926 legislation that established the right for comprehensive planning.
  113. What act was a model for early zoning & enabling legislation
    Standard State Zoning Enabling Act of 1926
  114. What gives governments the right to establish land use laws
    "Police Powers to protect the heath
  115. "What is a ""Physical Envasion"" takings?"
    An act of government whereby they encroach or invade private property rights (ie: easement without compensation).
  116. "Explain the ""Essential Nexus"" test."
    A takings legal test that considers if there is an evident linkage between the effect of the regulations & the governments stated interest or intent. Legislative Intent = Legitimate Government Authority.
  117. "Explain the ""Rough Proportionality"" test"
    A takings test that considers if the results of a legislation/ action is directly related both in nature & extent to the impact of the law. Government Actions = Outcomes.
  118. What is the legal purpose of zoning?
    "To protect the public's health
  119. "Explain the ""Rational Basis"" test"
    That the government action is based in a reasonable government interest. Action = Legitimate exercise of Police Power.
  120. "Explain the ""Fairly Debatable"" test"
    "That a reviewer if given the same conditions and measures
  121. Variance
    Planning Process to add a built addition
  122. Zoning Text Amendment
    Changes the rules regarding the use and development of every property in a specified zoning district
  123. Zoning map amendment
    Change the zoning from residential to commercial on the property
  124. Replat
    Divide the lot into two or more parcels.
  125. Kelo v. City of New London (2005)
    Affirmed the use of eminent domain for economic development
  126. Lingle v. Chevron (2005)
    "Jettisoned the ""substantially advances"" test for takings"
  127. First Amendment
    "The first amendment covers freedom of speech
  128. Highest population density according to the 2000
    "New York has a population density of 10
  129. Americans with Disabilities Act
    1990
  130. Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA)
    Was adopted in 1972 to provides funding for coastal state programs designed to coordinate and regulate specific activities within defined coastal zones
  131. National Environmental Policy Act of 1969
    Required both the private and public sectors to conform to certain environmental standards
  132. Enterprise fund
    Established to manage the revenues and expenditures of a golf course
  133. UGB
    Urban Growth Boundary is the most effective method for preventing development in specified geographic areas.
  134. Christopher Stone's 1972 book Should Trees Have Standing
    "The book discusses the Sierra Club v. Morton
  135. Indian Reorganization Act (1934)
    Allowed Native Americans to adopt a constitution and organize for their common welfare
  136. City Beautiful Movement
    "Includes civic design as a primary principle. Cities such as DC and Chicago had large parks
  137. Fred French Investing Co. v. City of New York
    Found that Transfer of Development Rights is an inappropriate method to compensate the landowner for a taking by the City of New York.
  138. Fiscal impact analysis
    Best used for a single development project to determine the revenues and expenses of the project.
  139. New Urbanism
    Peter Calthorpe
  140. Krumholz???s
    Advocacy Planning in Cleveland
  141. Smart growth
    romotes a variety of housing choices to allow people of all income and household types to have a place to live.
  142. Section 8
    This housing program provides funds to pay a portion of the rent for low-income households. The amount paid depends on the household income
  143. Concentric Circle Theory
    "By Ernest Burgess in 1925. He believed that cities grow in a series of outward rings. Land use is based on the distance from the downtown. There were five rings to his theory. The first is CBD
  144. Neotraditional development
    "Calls for nodes of activity that provide Mixed Use
  145. BART
    Began in 1972 in San Francisco
  146. When and where was the first City Planning Conference?
    1909 - Washington DC
  147. What book was the first known formal instruction in city planning below the college level? When was it published and who was the author?
    1912 - Wackers Manual of the Plan of Chicago - Walter Moody
  148. "Carrying Out the City Plan - Who wrote it
    why is it important
  149. "AIP - what does it stand for
    when was it founded
  150. When was the first issue of City Planning published
    "In 1925
  151. When was ASPO founded and what does it stand for?
    "In 1934
  152. When was the first code of ethics for professional planners adopted?
    "In 1971
  153. When was the first exam for AIP membership administered?
    "In 1977
  154. When was the APA created and what two organizations joined to form it?
    "In 1978
  155. Who published the first isue of the Journal of Planning Education. When was it published?
    "In 1981
  156. What city passed the first land use zoning restriction on the location of obnxoxius uses? What year was it passed?
    "In 1867
  157. Which City created the first local civic center plan. What year was it created and what 3 individuals worked on the plan's development?
    "In 1903
  158. What city was the first to apply the City beautiful principles? What year was the plan finished and who wrote it?
    "In 1906
  159. When and where was the first town planning board created?
    "In 1907
  160. Who created the first metropolitan regional plan? What City was it completed for and what year was it completed?
    "In 1909
  161. Which state was the first to pass enabling legislation and which City was the first to use land use zoning to guide development? What year?
    1909 - Wisconsin was the first state to pass enabling legislation and Los Angeles was the first city to use land use zoning to guide development.
  162. When and where was the first full-time employee hired for a City Planning Commission? What was the commissioners name?
    "In 1914
  163. What City adopted the first comprehensive zoning code? Who wrote it and when was it adopted?
    "In 1916
  164. What county formed the first regional planning commission? When?
    "In 1922
  165. When were the Standard state zoning enabling act and the Standard City Planning enabling act and the issued? Who issued it and when?
    "In 1924
  166. What was the first major US city to adopt a comp plan? Who produced it and when?
    "In 1925
  167. When was the first National Planning Board created? When was it abolished?
    "In 1933
  168. Where and when was the first federally supported public housing built? Where was the first housing occupied?
    "In 1934
  169. "What was the first state to introduce statewide zoning? When was it introduced
    and when was it amended?"
  170. "Which US department released the first Standard City Planning Enabling Act? When
    and who was the Secretary in charge?"
  171. Who wrote How the other Half lives? When was it published and what did it influence?
    "How the Other Half Lives by Jacob Riis
  172. What book initiated the Garden City movement? Who wrote it and when was it published?
    "Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform by Ebenezer Howard
  173. What book was adopted as a textbook for eigth graders in Chicago?
    "Wacker's Manual of the Plan of Chicago by Walter Moody
  174. The first major textbook on City Planning - Author and date?
    "Carrying Out the City Plan by Flavel Shurtleff
  175. Who wrote Cities in Evolution? when was it written and what is the book about?
    "Cities in Evolution by Patrick Geddess
  176. Who wrote Planning of the Modern City? when?
    "Planning of the Modern City by Nelson Lewis
  177. What book did Ladislas Segoe write? When was it published and why is it relevant?
    "Local Planning Administration by Ladislas Segoe
  178. Who wrote Urban Land Use Planning? when?
    "Urban Land Use Planning by F. Stuart Chapin
  179. What book did Kevin Lynch write? what concepts did it introduce/design?
    "Image of the City by Kevin Lynch
  180. "Jane Jacobs - book name
    date
  181. Who wrote silent Spring and what is it about?
    "Silent Spring by Rachel Carlson
  182. What book did TJ Kent write? when?
    "The Urban General Plan by TJ Kent
  183. What book did Alfred Reins write? when? whis is it improtant?
    "With Heritage So Rich edited by Alfred Reins
  184. Who wrote design with nature? when? what is it about?
    "Design with Nature by Ian McHarg
  185. What book did Wiliam Whyte write? when? what does the book promote?
    "The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces by Wiliam Whyte
  186. Thomas Adams
    was an important planner during the Garden City movement. secretary of the Garden City Association and became the first manager of Letchworth. He developed a number of garden suburbs in England and later went on to teach planning at MIT and Harvard.
  187. Saul Alinsky
    "advocate of community organizing. organized Chicago???s poor late 1930s and 1940s. 1946 published Reveille for Radicals encouraged poor to become involved in American democracy. published Rules for Radicals
  188. Sherry Arnstein
    wrote ???A Ladder of Citizen Participation??? for the Journal of the American Planning Association in 1969. This article describes the levels of involvement by citizens depending on the form of participation utilized.
  189. Rachel Carson
    "wrote Silent Spring
  190. Rexford Tugwell
    "Resettlement Administration head.worked on greenbelt cities program
  191. Sir Raymond Unwin
    was an English town planner and designer of Letchworth. He later lectured at the University of Birmingham in England and Columbia University.
  192. Catherine Bauer Wurster
    founder of American housing policy. worked to reform policy related to housing and city planning.served as executive secretary of the Regional Planning Association of America.wrote Modern Housing. Influential in the passage of the Housing Act of 1937.
  193. The McMillan Plan
    1901 - City Beautiful design is the McMillan Plan of 1901 for Washington D.C.
  194. The Land Ordinance of 1785
    provided for rectangular land survey of Old Northwest.completed following the end of the Revolutionary War.provided systematic way to divide and distribute land to the public.established sections and townships.goal to raise money through the sale of land
  195. Homestead Act
    "1862-Lincoln-provided 160 acres land to settlers for $18 and guaranteed five years of residence.resulted in settlement of 270 million acres
  196. General Land Law Revision Act
    1891 was passed by Congress. This Act provided the President of the United States with the power to create forest preserves by proclamation.one of the earliest preservation efforts. Yellowstone Park was granted as part of this act
  197. "Forest Management Act
    "
  198. US Reclamation Act
    1902- allowed the funds raised from the sale of public land in arid states to be used to construct water storage and irrigation systems.led to the eventual damming of nearly every major western river.
  199. Public Lands Commission
    "In 1903
  200. Antiquities Act
    1906-first law to provide federal protection for archaeological sites.allowed for the designation of National Monuments.created to protect prehistoric Indian ruins and artifacts.president can designate national monuments without congress approval.
  201. The Resettlement Administration
    formed in 1935 to carry out experiments in population resettlement and land reform. The result was the development of Greenbelt towns. folded in January of 1937. brainchild of Rexford G. Tugwell in Franklin Roosevelt's administration.
  202. Serviceman's Readjustment Act
    "1944 commonly known as the GI Bill
  203. Resettlement Administration
    "Roosevelt-1935. This agency was responsible for the New Towns program which developed 0three cities based on Howard's (garden city) ideas: Greendale
  204. New Towns Act
    1946- UK led to the development of dozen communities based on Howard's ideas
  205. Park Forest IL
    following WWI - New town
  206. Alfred Bettman and Ladislas Segoe
    Developed the Cincinnati Plan 1925. First comp plan ever
  207. McMillan Plan
    plan for Washington DC - City Beautiful -1901
  208. The Regional Plan for New York and Environs
    "Between 1922 and 1929
  209. U.S. Housing Act of 1954
    required cities to develop comprehensive plans and provided funding for planning under Section 701. problem - it led to the creation of plans for the purpose of acquiring federal funds rather than to truly plan for communities.
  210. first skyscraper
    chicago 1885
  211. first dept. store
    salt lake city 1868
  212. first subway
    boston 1897
  213. first comprehensive zoning ordinance
    NYC 1916
  214. ADT
    Average Daily Traffic
  215. ADDT
    Annual Daily Traffic
  216. VMT
    Vehicle miles Traveled
  217. Principal Arterials
    "serve longer trips
  218. Minor Arterials
    "interconnect the principal arterials
  219. Collectors
    "provide both land access and traffic circulation with residential
  220. Local Streets
    provide direct access to adjacent land and to the higher classified streets
  221. Orgin Destination Study
    a detailed survey to estimate travel demands on a traffic system. Road blocks set up and motorists within the cordon area asked questions on where they are traveling to/from.
  222. Peek Hour/period
    the highest volume of traffic in a day
  223. Level of Service
    the ability of a road or street to accommodate traffic flow determines the level of service provided. Free flowing
  224. single-family residential
    10 Vehicle Trips per Unit
  225. planned unit developments
    8 Vehicle Trips per Unit
  226. duplexes and townhouses
    7 Vehicle Trips per Unit
  227. apartments & condos
    6 Vehicle Trips per Unit
  228. mobile homes
    5.5 Vehicle Trips per Unit
  229. retirement homes
    3.5 Vehicle Trips per Unit
  230. shopping center
    Range of parking: 1:1000 to 5:1000 (spaces:Gross Leasable Area)
  231. office
    Range of Parking: 1:2000 to 3:1000 (spaces:Gross Leasable Area)
  232. general office
    1:300 (spaces:gross floor area)
  233. office & medical center
    Range of Parking: 1:10 to 3:4 (spaces:employees)
  234. medical center
    Range of Parking: 3:4 to 9:2 (spaces:beds)
  235. university/college
    Range of Parking: 1:10 to 1:2 (spaces:students)
  236. university/college
    Range of Parking: 4:5 (spaces:staff persons)
  237. hotel
    Range of Parking needed: 1:5 to 3:2 (spaces:rooms)
  238. restaurant
    Range of Parking Needed: 5:1000 to 25:1000 (spaces:Gross Leasable Area)
  239. resident
    Range of Parking Needed: 1:5 to 2:1 (spaces:units)
  240. cross tabulation model
    "estimates trip generation rates based on land use type
  241. gravity model
    provides trip estimates based on proportional attractiveness of the zone and inversely proportional to the trip length.
  242. trip distribution
    examines where people are going. Regions are divided into traffic zones (TZA)and data is provided on # of trips between zones.
  243. Modal Split
    "deals with how people get to where they want to go. car
  244. Highway Capacity Manual
    "provides concepts
  245. Level of Service (LOS)
    ranges from A to F based on amount of congestion. A = freeflowing and F means heavily congested with reduced speeds and increased time to get through traffic signals.
  246. Federal Aid Highway Act
    "adopted in 1944 based on President Roosevelts 1939 system of highways the Act designated 65
  247. Public Roads Administration (PRA)
    responcible for implementing the interstate highway system. It did not have funding until 1952.
  248. Road Design
    focuses on everything from the nature of the street to actual design guidelines for local streets.
  249. Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA)
    "Provied funding for highways
  250. Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs)
    "created to meet federal requirements for urban transportation planning. Federal Aid Highway Act required urban areas w/ populations in excess of 50
  251. Transportation Improvement Program (TIP)
    "In MPOs with population of 200
  252. Transportation Demand Management (TDM)
    "General term used to describe strategies for the efficient use of transportation. (car sharing
  253. Tranit Oriented Development (TOD)
    resiential and commercial developments designed to maximize access to different modes of transportation. Focus is not on car travel.
  254. traffic calming
    "involves changes in street alignment
  255. "43
    560 square feet of area within property lines of a lot or parcel."
  256. A tax on property that is calculated based on a percent of value of the property taxed.
    Ad Valorem Tax
  257. "Housing developed through some combination of zoning incentives
    cost-effective construction techniques
  258. "Any law
    regulation
  259. "A zoning board of appeals has apellate jursidiction to review determinations of the zoning enforcement officer. Land use decisions of ZBA's
    Planning Boards
  260. "Districts usually to provide a single service such as schools
    water
  261. A map showing the essential natural or man-determined features of an area such aslot lines. Used as the starting point for many planning activities.
    Base Map
  262. "An Interest bearing certificate issued by a government or business
    promising to pay the holder a specified sum on a specified date- it is a common means of raising capital funds."
  263. "A local body
    created by ordinance
  264. "A local body
    created by ordinance
  265. "Method of solicting random ideas
    concepts
  266. "An intensive
    interactive problem solving process with meetings convened around the development of specific plans."
  267. Citizens groups presumed to represent the ideas and attitudes of local groups- the purpose to advise the planning agency.
    Citizen Advisory Groups
  268. A document or series of documents prepared by a planning commission or department setting forth policies for the future of a community.
    Comprehensive Plan
  269. Lines on a topographical map that indicate slope.
    Contour Lines
  270. A right given by the owner of land to another party for specific limited use of that land.
    Easement
  271. "Legislation passed by the state legislature authorizing cities
    towns
  272. "The legal right of government to acquire or ""take"" private property for public use or public purpose upon paying just compensation to the owner."
    Eminent Domain
  273. "Traditional as-of-right or self-executing zoning in which district regulations are explicit- residential
    commercial
  274. A contribution or payment required as an authorized precondition for receiving a development permit.
    Exaction
  275. A zoning district whose requirements are fully described in the text of the ordinance but which is unmapped.
    Floating Zone
  276. "Computer mapping system that produces multiple ""layers"" of graphic information about a community or region."
    GIS
  277. Analysis used in transportation planning that eveluates the relationship between the force of attraction and the generation of vehicular trips.
    Gravity Model
  278. Broad statements of ideal future conditions that are desired by the communtiy and contained in the comprehensive plan.
    Goals
  279. A business conducted in a residential dwelling unit that is incidental and subordinate to the primary residential use.
    Home Occupation
  280. "The effective taking or reduction in value of a property as a result of public action
    in contrast to a direct taking through eminent domain."
  281. A system of describing & identifying land by measures and direction from and identifiable point of reference.
    Base and meridian
  282. An in-depth study that attempts to discover all the underlying economic factors that affect a community's growth or decline.
    Economic Base Study
  283. A range of values that includes a certain populations parameter with a given probability.
    Confidence Interval
  284. A technique developed to monitor the real pattern of money flows.
    Input-Output Modeling
  285. "A technically integrated and jurisdictionally coordinated transportation system with such features as freeway management systems
    advanced traffic surveillance
  286. Component of the General Plan that establishes land use goals and policies.
    Land Use Element
  287. A region's percentage share of a particular activity with its percentage share of the local versus National Market.
    Location Quotient
  288. Relatively free flow of traffic with little or no limitation on movement.
    Level of Service A
  289. Steady flow of traffic with only slight delays in travel. Some limitations on speed and movement. All vehicles clear light in a single cycle.
    Level of Service B
  290. "Reasonable steady
    high volume flow of traffic with some limitations on movement and speed
  291. "Traffic nears an unstable flow. Intersections still functional
    but short queues develop and cars may have to wait through one cycles during short peaks."
  292. "Characterized by slow movement and frequent stoppages. Congestion is considered severe
    but not uncommon at peak traffic hours
  293. Unsatisfactory stop and go traffic characterized by traffic jams and stoppages of long duration. Cars usually have to wait through one or more signal cycles.
    Level of Service F
  294. "The process where one sets lower bounds for the various objectives that
    if attained
  295. New development designed with the pedestrian in mind.
    TND or Traditional Neighborhood District
  296. Retrofitting of existing suburbs with new growth areas along pedestrian areas around public transportation hubs.
    PP or Pedestrian Pockets
  297. A process in which general agreement is reached over a period of time people with divergent interests.
    Concensus Building
  298. "Effort of a third party
    usually a single person to persuade disputants to come to an agreement."
  299. Method of assessing project alternatives by wseighting alternatives according to citizen group goals.
    Goals Achievement Matrix (GAM)
  300. Put planning related issue on ballot - challenges existing i.e. adopted plan
    Referendum
  301. Used to facilitate meaningful discussions through a moderator - developed by Rand Corporation
    Delphi Method
  302. To represent disadvantaged segments of population
    Advocacy Planning
  303. "Planning approach for comprehensive plans
    census in community
  304. "Use change one aspect of plan- known as ""science of muddling through""
    short-term problems with little time and little money."
  305. "Developed in 1960s to get public involved- planning by people for people- communituy meetings
    quality of life not delivery of services."
  306. "Planning that does not work
    i.e. allow neighborhood to take over planning functions."
  307. "Solve Societys ills through physical planning
    ""Visionary""
  308. "Clear method used to achieve an undefined/unknown means e.g. zoning reviews
    public hearings
  309. Rooted in agriculture most humanly valuable. T. Jefferson & Hector St John de Crevecoeur
    Agrarian (1800s)
  310. total unrestricted competition in society ultimately benefits & individual hardships from competition essential to ultimate good of state. Exploit the poor...
    Laissez Faire (1800s)
  311. "Gov't involvement in public health & safety of worker. max standards
    min hsg standards
  312. "Beauty of public works projects to attract wealthy
    pleasant life of poor
  313. "Create broad
    tree lined aves
  314. "Burnham
    Lomsted
  315. "Big business lost interest
    awarenesss of corruption-movement declined but emphasis of physical site planning was internalized in planning movements regulating development of suburbs."
  316. "Began with Columbian Expo at Chicago worlds fair in 1893
    White City
  317. "Anti-urban
    agarian
  318. "Ebenezer Howard ""Tommorrow Peaceful Path to Reform 1898)"
    Garden City ((1920s in US)
  319. "Lethchworth
    England 1903-20
  320. "Influenced by Howard's cities & Ray Unwin's ""Hampstead Gardens"" (1907). 1st compr suburban neighborhood design
    planning & physical design of residential with spatial open
  321. "City of Motor Age
    superblocks & cul-de-sacs
  322. "Not really ""Garden City"" DID NOT HAVE planned greenbelt
    not self-contained
  323. "Emergency Relief Act 1935
    admin by Rural Resettlement Admin
  324. Never built because RRA stopped by courts -Fed govt couldn't use power of eminent domain that way.
    "Greenbrook
  325. Massive land subdivisions and single-family hsg projects with few community facilities & built on model of war hsg projects of 1940s.
    "New Towns: Levittown
  326. "Major amenities
    large open spaces
  327. Overlapping communities
    New Towns: Columbia MD (1960s)
  328. What is a DELPHI study
    An analysis technique that utilizes surveys & anonymous experts
  329. What are the 3 key elements of a DELPHI study
    "1) structure of information flow (surveys
  330. A DELPHI study can best study what type of problem
    "Simplistic
  331. What two project management techniques model a network/sequence of parrell & corresponding tasks?
    PERT & CPM
  332. What is PERT?
    Program Evaluation & Review Technique
  333. What is CPM?
    Critical Path Method
  334. What is the difference between PERT & CPM
    PERT: VARIABLE task times. CPM: FIXED task times.
  335. Why does the task increment escalate in 10s in PERT
    In order that new tasks may be inserted as project progresses
  336. What two management principles deal with a hierachy of needs?
    Maslow & ERG
  337. What does ERG stand for?
    "Existence
  338. What is the primary differences between Maslow & ERG?
    "Maslow: a large # multiple steps
  339. What is a Gantt chart?
    "Schematic that shows the steps/tasks of project on a parrelle
  340. What is a WBS
    "Work Breakdown Stucture. It is a form of a Gantt chart
  341. What role does a WBS play in project planning
    Used prior to a CPM or PERT in order to identify the tasks
  342. What is ZBB
    Zero Based Budgeting. It is a budget process which assumes that the baseline budget each fiscal cycle is zero.
  343. Why is ZBB good for government?
    Because it helps ensure that projects are still needed & helps prevent spending from spiraling out of control.
  344. What is a fiscal impact analysis?
    Estimates the impact of a development or a land use change on the costs and revenues of governmental units serving the development.
  345. What does a fiscal impact analysis evaluate?
    "revenues
  346. What is the benefit of a fiscal impact analysis
    "Estimates the difference between the costs of providing services to a new development and the revenues???taxes and user fees
  347. What is a cohort survival or logitudinal study?
    "A study that evaluates the same group
  348. What is a shift-share study?
    Land use study that evaluates the shift in a given issue's share (ie: population/employment) from one area to another.
  349. What is a cost-benefit analysis?
    A management study that evaluates the benefits of a solution (including programatic & personnel) costs to the value / benefit of the outcome.
  350. Why is a cost-benefit analysis useful
    Determine if a project/solution is worth implementing.
  351. Best way to solicit citzen input in plan making
    Neighborhood group leaders and citizen committees
  352. Most effective way to generate adequate citizen participation
    Developing a multi-faceted public information program
  353. Common citizen surveys
    "Mailed-inexpensive but slow
  354. Charrette
    Intensive interactive problem-solving process convened around development of specific plans. Experts within & outside community.
  355. Citizen Advisory Committee
    Citizens groups presumed to represent the ideas and attitudes of local residents. Purpose to advise planning agency.
  356. Planners primary obligation
    Serve the public interest
  357. Citizen referendum
    Citizens vote their approval or disapproval of a public measure by official ballot.
  358. Delphi technique
    Used to develop consensus between two or more groups that are in conflict. Develop goals & objectives. Group facilitation skills.
  359. Focus Groups
    Representative sample of a community. Facilitated in an informal setting directed toward a specific subject.
  360. Ladder of Citizen Participation: Sherry R. Arnstein
    "Defines citizen participation in terms of amount of control citizens have over policy decision. without distribution of power citizen participation is ""empty ritual""."
  361. Factors are important to determining populaiton projections
    "Migration
  362. Tiger file
    "Digital database of geographic features
  363. Cohort survival method of population projection
    "The study of a group by a specific characteristic (age
  364. Housing Unit Method (HUM)
    A process of using housing data for population projections
  365. Symptomatic indicators
    Data series such as building permits that are reflective of population change and can be used in developing current population estimates
  366. Composite method for estimating populations
    "Takes various age groups and determines the estimate for each
  367. Constant share technique
    "Assumes that the portion of a sample's type (people
  368. Shift share technique
    An projection for employment / population that takes into account the shift/movement of jobs & people from or to a community
  369. Flood Plain Map
    A map that shows the vulnerability of a flood according to the 100 year flood
  370. Soil Map
    A map showing the distribution of soil types or other soil mapping units in a relation to the prominent and cultural features of the earth???s surface
  371. Soil Profile
    A cross section of the earth's showing the makeup of the soil layers
  372. Agency responsible for soil map database
    NRCS (National Resource Conservation Service) division of US Dept of Agricultarue
  373. Agency responsible for floodplain maps
    FEMA
  374. USGS orthophoto
    An aerial photograph that has been altered in such a way that the lens distortions are removed & so that it may be scaled for mapping purposes
  375. Scale of a USGS orthophoto
    "1:12
  376. Electronic town meeting
    Electronic tool used to gather public feedback on the WTC proposals
  377. USGS topographic map
    "Scales = uses 1:24
  378. Only map to cover the entire US in detail
    USGS topographic map
  379. First Year USGS topographic map produced
    1879
  380. Topographical map
    A map that uses contour lines to portray the shape and elevation of the land. Topographic maps render the three-dimensional ups and downs of the terrain on a two-dimensional surface
  381. Information on Topographical map
    "Both natural and manmade features. Natural features include: mountains
  382. How many USGS topographic maps total?
    55000
  383. Plan making
    "A three part process includes 1) Goals and visions
  384. Visioning
    A process whereby citizens attend a series of meetings that provide the opportunity to offer input on how the community could be in the future.
  385. Strategic Planning
    Short-term in focus & specific in accomplishing certain objectives.
  386. Strategic Planning
    "Used to assist an organization in guiding its future. Strategic planning sets goals
  387. Goal
    "A general statement that may not be realized
  388. Objective
    A more specific and attainable statement.
  389. Survey
    Research method that allows one to collect data on a topic that cannot be directly observed. Surveys are used extensively in planning to assess attitudes and characteristics of the public on a wide range of topics.
  390. Cross-sectional survey
    Gathers information about a population at a single point in time
  391. Longitudinal surveys
    Gathers information about a population over a period of time
  392. Written surveys
    "Mailed
  393. Group-administered surveys
    Used for specifc populations. Allows a high and quick response rate. This survey method requires a small sample size.
  394. Drop-off Survey
    Survey left at someone???s residence or business to be completed. Response rates are higher than mail surveys because of personal contact with the respondent. Expensive due to time required to distribute. Sample size smaller than mail surveys.
  395. Phone/Oral Interview Surveys
    Useful for yes/no answers. Allows follow up on answers. Response rate varies greatly. Expensive method because of the time to complete. Can be biased by interaction with the interviewer. Difcult to use long questions and multiple answers w/ this method.
  396. Electronic surveys
    Growing in popularity. Administered on web or via e-mail. Inexpensive method that can generate quick responses. This method has a higher response rate than written or interview surveys. Downside will not reach people w/o Internet access.
  397. Floor Area Ratio (FAR)
    "Is the ratio of the gross floor area of the building to its ground area. It is used primarily to determine building density on a site or
  398. Small Scale Map
    Shows a large land area with little detail.
  399. Large Scale Map
    Shows a limited land area in great detail.
  400. Contour lines
    Show lines of equal elevation.
  401. Contour Interval
    "Show distance between contour lines. The closer together the contour lines are
  402. Slope
    The change in elevation divided by the horizontal distance.
  403. Slope of 0-0.5%
    "No drainage
  404. Slope of 0.5-1%
    "No problems
  405. Slope of 1 - 3%
    Slight problems for large commercial areas acceptable for residential
  406. Slope of 3 - 5%
    Major problems for commercial/industrial/large scale residential
  407. Slope of 5-10%
    Suitable only for specially designed development.
  408. "Scale of 1:24
    000"
  409. 1 acre 43 560 square feet
    43 560 square feet
  410. Normal Distribution
    Symmetrical dispersion around the mean. This is a bell curve.
  411. Population
    The total of a collection.
  412. Sample
    A subset of the population.
  413. Descriptive Statistics
    Describe the characteristics of a population.
  414. Inferential Statistics
    Determines characteristics of a population based on observations made on a sample from that population. What is observed in the sample is assumed to apply to the population.
  415. Central Tendancy
    "The typical or representative value of a dataset. Can be reported by a variety ways including mean
  416. Mean
    Average of a distribution.
  417. Median
    The middle number of a distribution.
  418. Mode
    The most frequent number in a distribution
  419. Nominal data
    Data that is classified into mutually exclusive groups that lack intrinsic order. Race and sex are examples of nominal data. Mode is the only measure of central tendency that can be used for this data type.
  420. Ordinal data
    "Data values are ordered so that inferences can be made regarding magnitude
  421. Interval data
    "data that has an ordered relationship with a magnitude
  422. Ratio data
    Data has an ordered relationship and equal intervals. Distance is an example--2 miles is twice as long as 1 mile. Any form of central tendency can be used for this type of data.
  423. Range
    "Simplest measure of dispersion
  424. Variance
    The average squared difference of scores from the mean score of a distribution.
  425. Standard deviation
    is the square root of the variance.
  426. Standard Error
    The standard deviation of a sampling distribution. Standard errors indicate the degree of sampling fluctuation. The larger the sample size the smaller the standard error.
  427. Confidence Interval
    Gives an estimated range of values that is likely to include an unknown population parameter. The width of the confidence interval gives us an idea of how uncertain we are about the unknown parameter.
  428. Hypothesis
    A statement expressing a relationship. Makes a prediction of what you are trying to prove.
  429. Null hypothesis
    Relationship makes no difference relationship has resulted from random chance.
  430. Alternate hypothesis
    States the hypothesis the research expects to support the possibility that an observed effect is genuine
  431. Major population estimation and projection methods
    "Linear
  432. Linear Method
    Uses the rate of growth (or decline) in population over a period of time to estimate the current or future population.
  433. Symptomatic Method
    Uses available data to estimate the current population.
  434. Step-Down Ratio Method
    "Uses the ratio between the population of a city and a county (or larger geographical unit) at a known point in time
  435. Cohort Survival Method
    Uses the current population plus natural increase and net migration to calculate a future population. The population is calculated for men and women in specific age groups.
  436. Net Migration
    The difference between the number of people moving in and the number of people moving out.
  437. Economic Base Analysis
    "looks at basic and non-basic economic activities. Basic activities are those that can be exported
  438. Basic Economic Activites
    "Those that can be exported
  439. Non-Basic Activities
    Locally oriented.
  440. Location-Quotient (LQ)
    "A ratio of an industry???s share of local employment divided by its share of the nation (or other level of government). A ratio of less than 1 indicates that an area imports an industry???s products or services
  441. Shift-Share Analysis
    "Analyzes a local economy in comparison with a larger economy. This analysis looks at the differential shift
  442. Input-output analysis
    "Quantitative method to assist in economic policy decision-making. The analysis links suppliers and purchasers to determine the economic output of a region. Identifies primary suppliers
  443. Household Income
    Defined in terms of the amount of income they earn relative to 100% of the Area Median Income
  444. Area Median Income (AMI)
    "Refers to the middle or midpoint income for a particular area. The term is used to estimate the ""average"" income for a particular area."
  445. Moderate income households
    Earn between 80-120% of Area Median Income.
  446. Low income households
    Earn between 50-80% of Area Median Income.
  447. Very low income households
    Earn no more than 50% of Area Median Income.
  448. Poverty thresholds
    Used for calculating all official poverty population statistics
  449. Poverty guidelines
    Simplified version used for administrative purposes e.g. determining financial eligibility for certain federal programs.
  450. Poverty Rate
    12.6 percent (increased for 4 years from 2000 - 2004)
  451. Median household Income
    "$46
  452. Baby Boomers
    People born between 1946 and 1964.
  453. Generation X
    People born between 1965 and 1976.
  454. Echo Boom (Generation Y)
    People born between 1977 and 2000.
  455. Megalopolis
    "A many-centered
  456. Urban cluster
    "A contiguous
  457. Urbanized Area
    "A contiguous
  458. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs)
    Digital data about the elevation of the earth's surface as it varies across communities allows planners to analyze and map it.
  459. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR )
    "Uses a laser
  460. Fiscal Impact Analysis
    Used to estimate the costs and revenues of a proposed development on a local government.
  461. Average Per Capita Method
    Divides the total local budget by the existing population in a city to determine the average per-capita cost for the jurisdiction. Type of Fiscal Impact Analysis
  462. Adjusted Per Capita Method
    Varries fiscal impact based on expectations about the new development. Type of Fiscal Impact Analysis
  463. Disaggregated Per Capita Method
    Estimates the costs and revenues based on major land uses. Type of Fiscal Impact Analysis
  464. Dynamic Method
    Applies statistical analysis to time-series data from a jurisdiction. Type of Fiscal Impact Analysis
  465. The Ordinance of 1785
    Established a system of rectangular survey coordinates for virtually all of the country west of the Appalachians. Established the basis for the Public Land Survey System.
  466. Public Land Survey System
    "Land was to be systematically surveyed into square townships
  467. TIGER Files Include
    "Roads
  468. Base Map
    "Type of map used as a starting point for many planning projects
  469. All communications with the Executive Director regarding specific ethical situations should occur using which methods of communication?
    Phone and/or Letters
  470. The necessity of the highest standards of fairness and honesty among participants of the planning process is required because?
    Planning issues usually involve: conflict of values and large private interests.
  471. The planning process exists???why?
    To serve the public interest.
  472. Ethical principles 1. The planning process must continuously _______and faithfully ______the public interest.
    Pursue- Serve
  473. Ethical principle 2. Planning process participants continuously strive to achieve high standards of _______ and proficiency so that the public respect for the planning process will be maintained.
    integrity
  474. Planner???s primary obligation?
    To serve the public interest
  475. What is formulated through continuous debate
    The definition of public interest
  476. Planners Owe alliance to what?
    Conscientiously attained concept of the public interest
  477. "Who does a planner owe diligent
    creative independent and competent performance to?"
  478. "Diligent
    Creative
  479. "A Planner should strive for high ________ of professional integrity
    __________ and knowledge."
  480. Who can you seek informal advise on ethics from?
    Ethics Officer
  481. Is the informal advice from the Ethic officer binding upon the AICP?
    "No
  482. A formal advisory ruling request on the propriety of any professional planner???s conduct must be submitted in writing to whom?
    Only the Ethics Officer
  483. Will the Ethics Officer provide a written charge of misconduct to the person who is accused with the misconduct (respondent)?
    Yes
  484. What will Ethics Officer do after receiving an alleged charge of misconduct and providing a copy to the person being accused?
    Determine if the charges warrant an investigation
  485. The Ethics Officer with or without an investigation may do which two things?
    1. Dismiss the charge- 2. Issue a complaint against the respondent
  486. "At least _______ before the hearing
    the Ethics Officer and the Respondent shall exchange lists of proposed witnesses who will testify
  487. "When an appeal is filed to an Ethics Officer???s decision
    who gets to make the next determination?"
  488. "If there is disputed matter in an ethics complaint and the respondent is granted a hearing with the Ethics Committee
    are the formal rules of evidence used?"
  489. Identified Charging Parties who are notified of the dismissal of their ethics charges shall have ___________ from the date of the receipt of their dismissal letters to file an appeal with the Ethics Committee.
    Identified Charging Parties who are notified of the dismissal of their ethics charges shall have 30 calendar days from the date of the receipt of their dismissal letters to file an appeal with the Ethics Committee.
  490. Is the AICP hearing on the Charge of Misconduct open to the public?
    No
  491. Can a settlement be reached before a complaint is issued?
    "Yes
  492. All Written opinions endorsed by the Commission or by the Ethics Committee are published. What is omitted from the publication?
    "Actual Names and Places
  493. "Unwelcome sexual advances
    requests for sexual favors
  494. "Certified planners can not perform work on a project for a client or employer if
    in addition to the agreed upon compensation there is a possibility for direct personal or financial gain to us
  495. "As salaried employee
    can a certified planner undertake other employment in planning or a related profession
  496. "If the Ethics Committee determines that the Ethics Officer has demonstrated that the Rules of Conduct have been violated
    it shall also determine the appropriate sanction (3 options):"
  497. Who can file a charge of misconduct against a Certified Planner?
    "Any person
  498. Is a planner who receives a charge of misconduct allowed legal representation?
    "Yes
  499. Submission to unwanted attention is a term or condition of employment
    Sexual harrassment
  500. Submission or rejection to unsolicted attention is used as a bases for employment decisions
    Sexual harrassment
  501. "Unwanted attention has the effect of unreasonably interfering withwork performance or creating an intimidating
    hstile/offensive work environment."
  502. The Respondent has how long from receipt of a Complaint in which to file an Answer?
    30 calendar days
  503. Who can give give formal advice on the propriety of a planner's proposed conduct?
    Only the Ethics Officer
  504. Is sexual harassment specifically cover by the AICP code of conduct?
    No
  505. The Ethics Officer will respond to requests for formal or informal advice within
    21 days
  506. Who may file a charge of misconduct against a Certified Planner?
    "Any person
  507. What standard must AICP misconduct charges meet?
    "The Ethics Officer will have the burden of proving
  508. What standard of proof must ethics charges meet?
    Preponderance of the evidence
  509. AICP Code Section A
    Principles to Which We Aspire
  510. AICP Code Section B
    Our Rules of Conduct
  511. AICP Code Section C
    Our Code Procedures
  512. Staff Functions
    Provide Services to other governmental entities
  513. Line Functions
    "Provide services directly to the public (i.e. subdivision reviews
  514. GAM stands for:
    Goals Acheivement Matrix
  515. GAM
    Chart that shows the anticipated attainment of a project's goals and the assignment of accomplishing a goal to a group
  516. Gantt Chart
    Focuses on a sequence of tasks necessary for project completion. Each task is represented as a horizontal bar on an XY chart. X is time.
  517. Linear Programming
    project management method that attempts to find the optimum design solution for a project. This system takes a set of decision variables within constraints and comes up with an optimum design solution
  518. PERT stands for:
    Program Evaluationand Review Techinique
  519. PERT
    "Scheduling method that graphically illustrates the interrelationship of the project tasks. Identify milestones
  520. CPM stands for:
    Critical Path Method
  521. CPM
    "tool to analyze a project. The analysis results in a ""critical path"" through the project tasks. each task has a know amount of time to complete and cannot be completed before its previous one is completed. The longest pathway is the critical pathway."
  522. PERT and CPM work when?
    A project is of a large scale. Using software.
  523. Strategic Planning
    "used to assist in guiding the future. Sets goals
  524. Strategic Plan should address major questions:
    1. What is the current situation and how is it going to change? 2. Where are we going as an org? 3. How will we get there?
  525. Eight elements of a Strategic Plan
    1Analyze the community's needs 2Identify results-det the long-term objectives that will be pursued 3Admit uncertainties-SWOT analysis relating to the objectives 4Inv stakeholders 5.Dev & eval alt's 6ID role of City 7Dev funding policy 8Eval performance
  526. Strategic Planning is ________ -term in focus and is specific in accomplishing certain________________
    "short
  527. An operating budget includes:
    "the everyday expenditures of an organization
  528. A capital budget includes:
    "long-term purchases
  529. Capital Budget is for the period of
    one year
  530. Capital Improvements Program is for the period of
    Five to ten years
  531. CIP includes
    "project descriptions
  532. Budgeting can be used for (name 5)
    "resource allocation
  533. Line-item Budgeting
    the emphasis is on projecting the budget for the next year and adding in inflationary costs
  534. Advantages of Line Item Budgeting
    "Does not require eval of existing services
  535. Disadvantages of Line Item Budgeting
    "lack of flexibility
  536. Line-Item Budget looks at ________ year(s) and is not linked to:
    "ONE
  537. PPBS stands for:
    "Planning
  538. PPBS is focused on planning through
    accomplishing goals set by the department
  539. Advantage of PPBS
    it helps deparments place programs in perspective and evaluate efforts and accomplishments
  540. Disadvantages of PPBS
    "Time consuming
  541. PPBS includes:
    "Program mission statements
  542. ZBB stands for:
    Zero Based Budgeting
  543. ZBB
    Emphasizes Planning and fosters understanding within all units of the organization
  544. Performance Based Budgeting is focused on
    linking funding to performance measures.
  545. Pay-as-you-go Financing
    uses current funds to pay for capital improvement projects
  546. Reserve Funds
    are ones that have been saved for the purchase of future capital improvements
  547. General Obligation Bonds
    are voter approved bonds for capital improvements. GO Bonds use the tax revenue of the gov. to pay back the debt
  548. Revenue Bonds
    use a fixe source of revenue to pay back debt. i.e. water use fees could be used to pay back revenue bonds for a water main
  549. TIF stands for
    Tax Increment Financing
  550. TIF allows a designated area to
    have tax revenue increases used for capital improvements in the area
  551. Special Assessments
    allow a particular group of people to be assesssed the cost of a public improvement.
  552. Lease-purchase allows a governement to
    rent to own
  553. GRANTS are available to government by
    "all levels of government
  554. Taxes are used to generate revenue to:
    finance government and redistribute income
  555. Three types of taxes:
    "Progressive
  556. Progressive Taxes
    The tax rate increases as income rises
  557. Proportional Tax
    The tax rate is the same regardless of income
  558. Regressive Tax
    The tax rate decreases as income rises
  559. Criteria used for the implementation of a tax:
    "fairness
  560. Tax-Write off
    when governments offer tax inventives in order to attract economic development
  561. Design Charette
    "intensive collaborative effort that brings together citizens
  562. Delphi Method
    structured process of citizen participation with the intent of coming to a consensus
  563. Facilitation
    uses a person who does not have a direct stake in the outcome of a meeting to help groups that disagree work together to solve complex problems and come to a consesus decision.
  564. Mediation
    is a method where a neutral third party facilitates discussion in a structured multi-stage process to help parties reach a satisfactory agreement.
  565. Public Hearing
    A meeting before a public body allowing for formal citizen input. Public hearings are typically mandated by law.
  566. Visual Preference Survey
    a technique that can be used to assist citizens in evaluating physical images of natural and built environments.
  567. Visioning
    a process whereby citizens attend a series of meetings that provide the opportunity to offer input on how the community could be in the future. Visioning is typicall a 20 to 30 year outlook
  568. problem definition steps
    1define problem 2specify boundaries 3develop fact base 4list goals & objectives 5identify range of solutions 6define potential costs & benefits 7review the problem statement
  569. Used making a decision on whether or not to spend money to build a new senior center or hire more police.
    Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
  570. Retaining existing business and industry is a goal of?
    Economic Development Programs
  571. Attracting business is a goal of?
    Economic Development Programs
  572. Developing and financing facilities that help capture business is a goal of?
    Economic Development Programs
  573. "When material that is a matter of public record containing sensitive
    private
  574. Concurrency is attributable to which state?
    Florida
  575. The most common measure of traffic volume is?
    LOS
  576. Compares what a community gains from a project to what must be sacrificed to obtain it.
    Cost-Benefit Analysis
  577. A systematic comparision between the amount one section of the communty is paying to the cost of serivices provided to that sector.
    Cost-Revenue Analysis
  578. Its purpose is to assist the city in determining if the project will generate sufficient revenue to defray the cost of public services.
    Fiscal Impact Study
  579. The industrial classification system that replaced the SIC is?
    North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)
  580. "Utilize quantitative methods to analyze impact on the community- ie economic base theory
    location quotient
  581. Use of info or current data symptomatic of what is being studied- ie sampling
    Estimate
  582. Best Guess - id future considtion analysist feels to occur- decisions & judgement with respect to various factors & variables- might be skewed
    Forecast
  583. what If about future if assumptions prove true (IF)
    Projection
  584. "Constructed to avoid undesirable futures
    make desired forecasts come true
  585. Method adds a shift factor to account for jobs into or out of local economy due to factors affecting local economy.
    Shift-share
  586. "Method determines level of basic sector employment by comparing local economy to economy of larger geographic region
    State or country."
  587. Method which allows analysts to quantify and evaluate connections between industrial sectors.
    Input-Output Modeling
  588. Give money to develop businesses in a certain location.
    Place-Related Programs (Carter) Federal fundiing 1960s
  589. Enacted in 1994-Federal funds to distressed areas.
    Empowerment Zone Program (Clinton)
  590. "Zone with tax breads for new investment are offered - tax reductions
    direct grants
  591. Special Tax/Revenue Bonds
    Repaid from earmarked taxes or user charges
  592. Private Activity Bonds
    Repaid with receipts from private firm
  593. Performance Bonds
    Required by City & County gov conver offsite public improvement obligations associated with commerecial & residential developments.
  594. Impact fees & tax increment financing
    Used to pay for capital projects
  595. Revenue bonds
    "usually pays for parking garages
  596. Capital Improvement Progamming
    one way to implement comprehensive plan
  597. Capital Improvement Program (CIP)
    "prepared by planning director or planning commission
  598. Community Development Block Grants
    Administered by HUD on formula basis for entitlement communities and by State Dept of Hsg & Community Development (HCD) for non-entitlement jurisdictions. Came about after Housing & Community Development Act of 1974.
  599. Community Development Block Grants
    "Eliminates blight
  600. Growth Management goal 1
    protect lands that provide public & quasi public goods
  601. Special Tax/Revenue Bonds
    Repaid from earmarked taxes or user charges
  602. Private Activity Bonds
    Repaid with receipts from private firm
  603. Performance Bonds
    Required by City & County gov conver offsite public improvement obligations associated with commerecial & residential developments.
  604. Impact fees & tax increment financing
    Used to pay for capital projects
  605. Revenue bonds
    "usually pays for parking garages
  606. Capital Improvement Progamming
    one way to implement comprehensive plan
  607. Capital Improvement Program (CIP)
    "prepared by planning director or planning commission
  608. Community Development Block Grants
    Administered by HUD on formula basis for entitlement communities and by State Dept of Hsg & Community Development (HCD) for non-entitlement jurisdictions. Came about after Housing & Community Development Act of 1974.
  609. Community Development Block Grants
    "Eliminates blight
  610. Growth Management goal 1
    protect lands that provide public & quasi public goods
  611. Special Assessment Districts
    Area subject to special prop tax assessment for financing special improvements in district.
  612. General Obligation Bonds
    Repaid from general taxes
  613. Growth Management goal 2
    Accommodate Development needs
  614. Urban growth boundaries (UGB)
    Identifies when/where land available for development 20-25 yrs growth in employment & population.
  615. Urban Service Areas (USA)
    Geographic areas targeted for new or improved infrastructure or for public fac. & urban services next 5-10 yrs.
  616. Intermediate Growth Boundaries (IGB)
    Formed within Urban growth boundaries (UGB) where development channeled over time.
  617. Urban Reserve Boundaries
    define land outside UGB which free for development should UGB expand.
  618. Growth Management goal 3
    Provide adequate public facilities and services at minimum cost & distribute costs equitably.
  619. Growth Management goal 4
    "Distribute the burdens of and benefits of growth fairly- communities share plan
  620. Growth Management goal 5
    Prevent or mitigate negative and foster positive externalities- separation of incompatible land uses- containment of urban dev- use zoning & buffers.
  621. Growth Management goal 6
    Provide admin efficiency-streamlined permitting procedures- streamlined judicial review.
  622. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
    Used to compare & advocate policies by quantifying total costs & effects. Costs measured iin monetary terms- effects measured in units of any type.
  623. Cost-Revenue Analysis
    systematic comparison of two money flows.
  624. Fiscal Impact Analysis
    Detemines whether project generates sufficient revenues to offset cost of public services. similar to cost-revenue but CR broader application-impacts on public service. FI-fiscal implications of cost of public services & infrastructure.
  625. Municipal Financing Methods
    lease purchase- special assessments- special districts- state & federal grants- tax increment financing.
  626. Economic Development dimensions
    "Employment
  627. local economic development stratgegy
    "locality development
  628. Exaction
    contribution or payment required as authorized precondition for receiving a development permit-mandatory dedication or fee-in-lieu of dedication reqmts.
  629. Windfall tax
    tax on a financial benefit conferred on a property owner as a result of a publlic action. Recapture windfall profits by the public.
  630. Revenue forecasting
    "Requires understanding of past
  631. Budget
    Allocating & spending tax $ to provide services to the public that woulod otherwise have to be provided by themselves. Series of goals with price and priorities.
  632. Operating Budget
    "Everyday expenditures for salaries
  633. Planning programming budget system (PPBS)
    Technique that organizes budget so it relates to a goal or activity.
  634. Zero Base Budgeting
    Budget starts from scratch every year.
  635. Taxes
    "Generate revenues to finance govt goods & services
  636. Criteria when imposing tax
    "Fairness
  637. Progressive tax
    Tax rate increases as income rises.
  638. Proportional tax
    Tax rate is constant as income rises.
  639. Regressive tax
    Tax rate declines as income rises.
  640. Current Revenue
    Current funds for capital improvements
  641. Reserve funds
    Accumulation of funds for future capital improvements
  642. General Obligation Funds
    Votger approval to sell bonds for capital improvements
  643. Revenue Bonds
    Sell bonds at high interest rates for capital improvements
  644. Lease Purchase
    "Private developer pays for capital improvement and municipality ""rents-to-own"""
  645. "Assignment of or symbols (renaming
    categorical) for purpose of designating subclasses that represent unique characteristics. Weakness level of measurement
  646. Assignment of or symbols identifying ordered relationships of some characteristic but having unspecified intervals.
    Ordinal
  647. Assignment of for purpose of identifying ordered relations of some characteristic. Can mathematically see differences between values on the scale. (ie. temperature)
    Interval Scale
  648. "Assignment of for purpose of identifying ordered relations of some characteristic
    order having arbitrarily assigned & equal interval and absolute zero point. Meets math assumptions to perform arithmetic operations."
  649. nominal and sometimes ordinal
    Qualitative
  650. interval or ratio
    Quantitative
  651. Takes on finite number of values. Generally whole numbers.
    Discrete variable
  652. Where any numaber value can change to another in a given moment (ie. interest rate)
    Continuous variable
  653. fixed value throughout time (ie. male or female)
    Dichotomous variable
  654. "Basic tool for organizing data. Helps researcher ""see"" data. Easy to sort from lowest to highest values. Count of occurances. Add % of occurrance for each score and cumulative frequency."
    Frequency Distribution
  655. Most frequent score in distribution. Can have more hatn one mode - b i-modal.
    Mode
  656. sum of scores in distribution divided by number of scores.
    Mean
  657. "Midpoint or midscore in distribution 50% of observations fall above
    50% below. Can be calculated for ordinal
  658. Probability of distribution that is symmetrical around the mean. A BELL CURVE.
    Normal Distribution
  659. Probability curve where a few high numbers pulls the mean to the right.
    Skewed right
  660. Probability curve where few low numbers pulls the mean to the left
    Skewed left
  661. Difference between highest and lowest score
    Range
  662. Measure of how spread out a distribution is. Computed as average squared deviation of each number from its mean.
    Variance
  663. "Test viability of null hypothesis in light of experimental data. Depending on data
    null hypothesis either will or will not be rejected as a viable possibility."
  664. Reverse of what experimenter actually believes-put forward to allow data to contradict it.
    Null Hypothesis
  665. Statement expressing relationships between phenomena. Acceptance or non-acceptance upon logical analysis of data using scientific method. 1st describe prediction (trying to prove)- 2nd describe possible outcomes.
    Research Hypothesis
  666. Test statistic provides a measure of the amount of difference between the two frequency distributions.
    Chi Square - non-parametric
  667. Difference between the cost of a particular policy or project to gov unit & benefits to gov unit.
    Fiscal Impact Analysis
  668. "Cost & benefits of competing altern during life of program. Impact of inflation. Present value cals give future value by applying discount rate-considers impact of inflation & growth of services over time. Actual dollars-no inflation
    constant dollars yes"
  669. The location quotient (LQ) is an index for comparing an area's share of a particular activity with the area's share of some basic or aggregate phenomenon.
    Location quotient
  670. "a technique sometimes used for forecasting land use
    most often for forecasting changes in a set of urban areas or regions. (ie. employment and population are growing or declining)"
  671. "Decomposes employment growth (or decline) in a region over a given time period into three components: (1) a national growth effect
    (2) an industry mix effect
  672. "examines historical trends in the regional economy
    including recent changes in employment and business establishments
  673. quantifies the multiple economic effects resulting from a change in the final demand for a specific product or service.
    Input-Output Economic Analysis
  674. Used to analyze the profitability of an investment or project. Sensitive to the reliability of future cash inflows that an investment or project will yield.
    Net Present Value
  675. Frequency distribution of one variable when another is held fixed at each of the several levels.
    Regression
  676. concerns a number of procedures concerned with comparing two averages.
    T-test
  677. Most comprehensive approach to project eval. Shows anticipated attainment of projects goal and assignment of accomplishing goal to a group.
    Goals Achievement Matrix (GAM)
  678. "Focuses on single objective and projects effeictiveness with respect to that objective. When 2 or more projects achieve same level of service
    comparision comes down to cost."
  679. Compares community gains from project to what community must forego in order to achieve. Project with higher ratio that 1 provides more benefits than costs.
    Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA)
  680. Focuses on costs and revenues associated with specific form of growth. Resust is statement of net govt surplus or deficit expressed in financial terms.
    Cost Revenue Anslysis (CRA)
  681. Scheduling technique that graphically depicts inter-relationships of tasks that constitute project.
    PERT -Program evaluation and review technique
  682. Used to determine most critical steps to keep project going.
    Critical Path Programming
  683. Determines whether project will generate sufficient revenues to defray public service costs.
    Fiscal Impact Analysis
  684. Industries that draw money into economy from outside its borders.
    Basic Industries
  685. Industries serve the needs of local populance and businesses in localities borders.
    Non-basic Industries
  686. "Ratio of employment in basic industries to non-basic industries that utilizes economic multipliers. Varies with size of community. Larger community
    larger multiplier."
  687. Technique to monitor real pattern of money flows. Increase in production in one industry results in increases in other industries. Shows relationships among sectors of an economy.
    Input-Output modeling
  688. Two cities attract retail trade from any mid-sized town in direct proportion to population of 2 cities and in inverse proportion to the square of the distances from these 2 cities from the mid-sized town.
    Retail Gravitational Law (by W.J. Reilly)
  689. Group to generalize to
    Population
  690. Subset of the population.
    Sample
  691. the fact researcher is interested in explaining
    Dependant Variable
  692. variable used to explain the one dependent or causally prior to dependent variable.
    Independent Variable
  693. When experimenter can intentionally create variation in independent variable (ie. amount of funding)
    Manipulation
  694. Rival explanations for behavior of dependent variable.
    Confounding Variable
  695. "units observations are made (regions
    municipalities
  696. Set of data with which treatment group is compared.
    Control
  697. Subjects have equal chance of being assigned to treatment group or control group-purely by chance.
    Randomization
  698. Program rather than other factor caused results.
    Internal Validity
  699. Can the effect be expected under similar conditions in other settings.
    External Validity
  700. "Convenience sampling-those accessible- volunteer sampling - volunteers-OK for descriptive results
    may be bias
  701. Individual has equal chance of being selected for sample
    Simple random (probability sampling)
  702. "every Xth individual selected form list
    starting randomly chosen point"
  703. Population may have 2 or more groups in study-provides best results- ensures even coverage of population- maintains random selection probabilities.
    Stratified (probability sampling)
  704. Used when stratified or simple random sampling would be difficult and/or expensive.
    Cluster (probability sampling)
  705. "As ______increases
    standard error decreases"
  706. What level does corridor transportation planning typically occur at?
    Regional level
  707. Most corridor transportation planning is conducted by the .....?
    Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO)
  708. The National Corridor Planning and Development Program is a grant program that is funded as part of ....?
    SAFETEA-LU
  709. What deos SAFETEA-LU stand for? Who founded it and what year?
    "Safe
  710. "Programs provide funding for planning
    project development
  711. The National Scenic Byways Program is a...?
    "US Department of Transportation
  712. "Purpose of the program is to designate & fund enhancements of scenic hwys across the US. In order to receive Scenic Byway Designation
    the roadway must have archaeolgoical
  713. Which is the best way to solicit citzen input in plan making?
    Neighborhood group leaders and citizen committees
  714. Which generates the most effective adequate citizen participation?
    Developing a multi-faceted public information program
  715. Common citizen surveys
    "mailed-inexpensive but slow
  716. Charrette
    Intensive interactive problem-solving process convened around development of specific plans. Experts within & outside community.
  717. Task Force
    agency-sponsored committee with a specific task related to a single problem.
  718. Citizen Advisory Committee
    Citizens groups presumed to represent the ideas and attitudes of local residents. Purpose to advise planning agency.
  719. Citizen referendum
    Citizens vote their approval or disapproval of a public measure by official ballot.
  720. Delphi technique
    used to develop consensus between two or more groups that are in conflict. Develop goals & objectives. Group facilitation skills.
  721. Focus Groups
    Representative sample of a community. Facilitated in an informal setting directed toward a specific subject.
  722. Alinsky's Org: Paul Alinsky
    "Funding guarantee- paid organizer to neighborhood or community-Organizer identifies problem
  723. Advocacy Planning: Paul Davidoff
    Planner takes into account interests of those affected by plan- planners involved in political process as advocates for interests of gov and groups-mostly low income & minority.
  724. Ladder of Citizen Participation: Sherry R. Arnstein
    "Defines citizen participation in terms of amount of control citizens have over policy decision. without distribution of power citizen participation is ""empty ritual""."
  725. Citizen Participation & Code of Ethics
    "Continuing responsibility of professional planners- include disadvantaged citizens- special efforts required to reach disadvantaged- ""Planners primary obligation is to serve the public interest""."
  726. Freedom of speech applies to adult uses and signs. Freedom of religion applies to religious facilities. Freedom of association applies to group homes. What amendment?
    1st amendment
  727. This applies in cases of takings and eminent domain- just compensation for takings. What amendment
    5th amendment
  728. "Due process can be applied to takings
    eminent domain
  729. What type of zoning is equal protection applied to?
    exclusionary zoning
  730. What constitutional principles relates to the ruling in Dolan v. City of Tigard (1994)?
    Takings
  731. Munn v Illinois (1876)
    "In this case which concerned whether a grain operator had to comply with city ordinances
  732. Cochran v Preston (1908)
    Determined that Baltimore could control height based on the concern that excesive height could pose a fire hazard. Established a nexus between legislative intent & legislative standard.
  733. Welch v Sawsey (1909)
    Upheld a Boston law that differentiated height restriction between commercial & residential areas. Determined that height controls were a legitimate excersise of police powers.
  734. Eubank v City of Richmond (1912)
    Overturned a Richmond ordinance that enabled a set of property owners from controling the private rights of others in the neighborhood. Resulted in a deprivation of due process & equal protection.
  735. Hadacheck v Sebastian
    Upheld L.A. law that prevented landowners from manufacturing bricks on private property because the property had been annexed into the city & the excavation of the valuable soil was not restricted.
  736. Thomas Cusack Co v City of Chicago (1917)
    "Upheld law that allowed community members to vote on whether a billboard would be allowed in the neighborhood. Determined erection of billboards could negatively impact community's health
  737. "Town of Windsor
    CT v Whitney (1920)"
  738. Romar Realty v Board of Commissioners (1921)
    "Overturned a law which sought to establish building heights & lot lines expressly for ""aesthetic considerations"" because such concerns do not impact health
  739. Inspector of Building of Lowell v Stoklosa (1924)
    Upheld city ordinance which created sepate areas/zones for business & residential areas.
  740. Zahn v Public Works of LA (1925)
    Upheld legislation that prohibited business uses in residential areas even if it diminished some of the property's value and there were business operations existing in the area that had been established prior to the zoning change.
  741. Euchlid v Ambler Realty (1926)
    "Upheld zoning ordinance that separated ""uncompatible"" land uses"
  742. Washington Ex Rel. Seattle Trust Co v Roberge
    Overturned an ordinance that arbitrarily delegated power to determine acceptance of child/senior home to the surrounding property owners. Violation of due process.
  743. Jones v City of Los Angeles (1930)
    "Overturned part of a legislation that sought to cause exisiting businesses to cease once a new zoning classification was placed upon it. Upheld idea of ""nonconforming uses"""
  744. Dowsey v Kensington (1931)
    Found that there is fine line between reasonable use of police powers to restrict lawful use of private property and takings. Determined that the ordinance stepped over the line & deemed unconstitutional.
  745. Welton v Hamilton (1931)
    Overturned a Chicago ordinance which delegated zoning appeals to another body that had not been elected by the citizens without providing standards for ruling & criteria for judgement which resulted in the body having arbitrary authority.
  746. "US v Certain Lands
    City of Louisville (1935)"
  747. NYC Housing Authority v Muller (1936)
    Upheld a NYC action to condem private property to place city owned & operated housing projects on it. Housing for poor/low income is a legitimate use concern for police powers.
  748. Austin v Older (1938)
    Upheld a Michigan city ordinance that prevented an existing non-comforming use to place a second nonconforming structure on the property.
  749. People of Tuoky v City of Chicago (1946)
    Upheld the right for a city to condem slums/blighted areas for public ownership & that levying taxes for said purpose is a legitimate exercise of a governments taxation powers.
  750. Ayres v City of L.A. (1949)
    Upheld the right for the LA planning commission to place conditions on a development during the review process. A nexus existed between the development conditions & protection of public interests.
  751. Pennsylvania Coal Company v Mahon
    A land regulation was that diminished the economic viability land constitutes a taking under the Fifth Amendment
  752. 1978 - Takings Ruling - Penn Central Transportation Company v. City of New York
    "Found that a NYC Preservation Law was not a ""taking"" 1)Land use & economic viability remained and 2) Historic preservation is in the public's general welfare"
  753. Village of Belle Terre v. Boraas - 1974
    Communities may restict unrelated individuals from living together in a single dwelling unit
  754. Young v. American Mini Theatres - 1976
    Zoning of adult entertainment facilities is not a violation of the 1st Amendment
  755. 5th Ammendment
    Protects agains a taking without just compensation
  756. Takings Definition
    "A restriction of the use of privately owned land
  757. 1977 Moore v East Cleveland
    The Court found an ordnance that prevented a grandmother and a grandson from living together violated the Due Process Law of the 14th Ammendment
  758. "Why was East Cleveland's ""non-family"" definition overturned by the courts & Belle Terra's uphelp?"
    E Cleveland -- The parties were RELATED though not parent/child. Belle Terra's -- The parties were UNRELATED individuals.
  759. Metromedia v. San Diego - 1981
    Sign ordinanced which allows commercial signs in places noncommercial signs are not allowed is unconstitution because 1) noncommercial speech has higher 1st Amendment protection than commercial speech and 2) regulations may not be based on message content
  760. What does the POLICE POWER of Planning refer to?
    The regulation of personal property to prevent a use of the property that is detrimental to the public interest or general welfare.
  761. AGINS V. TIBURON (1980) -- What is the Takings Test that resulted from this ruling?
    "The AGINS test asks whether the regulation advances some legitimate government purpose and whether the property owner has any economic use left over after the regulation is applied. If the answer to either part is no
  762. Berman v. Parker - 1954
    "Upheld urban renewal practices
  763. What is significant about the taking ruling in Berman v Parker - 1954
    It changed the test for eminent domain as the Court transformed the words 'public use' to mean 'public purpose'.
  764. What must every government action do to be lawful? Test against a Takings.
    All land use and zoning regulations must advance a legitimate public interest.
  765. village of euclid v ambler realty -- 1926
    The six-to-three decision in Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co. legitimized zoning as a way of controlling land uses.
  766. "What does the term ""euclidean zoning"" refer to?"
    The act of segragating land uses from one another in order to ensure that incompatible uses do not locate in close proximity to one another. Upheld in the 1926 Landmark Planning Law Case Village of Euclid v Ambler Realty.
  767. What are the 3 tests of a Taking Case
    1) Essential Nexus 2) Rough Proportionality 3) Physical Invasion
  768. "What 2 conditions are necessary for special exceptions
    conditional use
  769. What are the 2 elements of due process
    1) Procedural (the way in which a law operates) 2) Substantive (what is restictions are imposed in the law)
  770. What 2 Constitutional Amendments address due process issues
    1) Fifth Amemendment & 2) 14th Amendment (Specifically addresses States)
  771. What are the 2 legal tests for eminiment domain?
    A community must prove that 1) Public Purpose 2) Necessity
  772. What 2 amendments deal with eminent domain
    1) 5th Amendment (taking without compensation 2) Fourteenth (comdementation without due process)
  773. Explain Eminent Domain & what historical law it orginates from
    Eminent domain is the fundamental soverign power to take private property for public use that originates from the Magna Carta
  774. What Landmark Case established the right to zone or redevelop land for aesthetic / master planning purposes?
    Berman v Parker 1954
  775. What are the 2 types of nuisance ordinances? What do they involved
    "1) Private Nuisance (Property owners right to uses that promote enjoyment of their land) 2) Public Nuisance (Common right to health
  776. What are the 3 tests for evaluating variances?
    1) Enactments (rational) 2) Application (unnecessary hardship & practical dificulties) 3) Hardship creation (self imposed or external)
  777. Lincoln Trust Co v Williams Building Corp -- 1920
    Upheld New York's zoning legislation
  778. "Dolan v City of Tigard
    1994"
  779. According tot he Constitution AnalysisTree What are the 11 Constiution Principles land use legistation may be analyzed by?
    "1) Delegation of Power
  780. "What are the primary tests used to analyze ""Discretionary Planning"""
    "1) Delegation of Power
  781. "What are the primary tests used to analyze ""Special Exceptions or Conditional Use Permits"""
    "1) Delegation of Power
  782. "What are the primary used to analyze ""Aesthetic Regulations"""
    "1) Delegation of Power
  783. "What are the primary tests used to analyze ""Rezoning (Negotiated) Approvals"""
    "1) Delegation of Power
  784. "What are the primary tests used to analyze ""Prohibition of Adult Uses"""
    "1) Void for Vagueness
  785. "What are the primary tests used to analyze ""Prohibition of Places of Worship"""
    "1) Substantive Due Process
  786. "What are the primary tests used to analyze ""Prohibition of Group Homes"""
    Equal Protection
  787. "What are the primary tests used to analyze ""Downzoning"""
    "1) Procedural Due Proces
  788. "What are the primary tests used to analyze ""Parcel Rezoning"""
    "1) Procedural Due Process
  789. Pennsylvania Coal v. Mahon
    "1922 - Takings Case - Restrictions on Use - Justice Holmes wrote in opinion ""The general rule...is
  790. Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co.
    "1926 - Takings - Restrictions on Use -This case upheld zoning as constitutional under the United States Constitution
  791. Penn Central Transportation Co. v. New York City
    1978 - Takings - Restriction on Use - Upheld that the restrictions imposed (by the Landmarks Law) are substantially related to the general welfare and not only permit reasonable use but also afford appellants opportunities to further enhance the property.
  792. Agins v. City of Tiburon
    "1979 - Takings - Restriction on Use - Two prong test - 1 ""does not substantially advance legitimate state interests"" or 2 ""denies an owner economically viable use of his land"""
  793. Keystone Bituminous Coal Assn. v. DeBenedictis
    "1987 - Takings - Affirmed Agins Test 1 - Stated that some states interest are more ""legitimate than others"" The more defensible the states interest the more likely it will be upheld."
  794. Nollan v. California Coastal Commission
    1987 - Takings - Expanded Agins Test 1 required a Nexus between the taking and the state's interest.-
  795. Dolan v. City of Tigard
    "1994 - Takings - Expanded Agins Test 1 - ""required a reasonable relationship"" between the conditions to be imposed on a permit and the development's impact. ""rough proportionality"""
  796. Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council
    1992 - Takings - Expanded Agins test 2 - found a takings when the owner was called upon to sacrifice all economically beneficial uses in the name of the common good.
  797. Munn v. Illinois
    1877 - A landmark decision that paved the way for future governmental intervention in private development.
  798. Welch v. Swasey
    "1909 - The first clear-cut nationwide authority for communities to regulate development of private property through limitation of building heights
  799. Eubank v. City of Richmond
    1912 - Setback legislation declared constitutional.
  800. Hadacheck v. Sebastian
    1915 - Provided that the restriction of future profitable uses was not a taking of property without just compensation.
  801. Town of Windsor v. Whitney
    1920 - Made land subdivision regulations possible by holding that dedication of streets as a prerequisite to platting was possible.
  802. Second Prong of the Agins Test
    An owner may not be denied economically valuable use of his or her land.
  803. First Prong of the Agins Test
    Regulations must substantially advance a legitimate state (governmental) interest.
  804. Nexus
    The condition has a required degree of connection.
  805. Metromedia v. City of San Diego
    1981 - Ordinances that placed tighter restrictions on non-commercial signs than commercial signs violate the 1st Amendment.
  806. Young. v. American Mini Theaters
    1976 - Communities can zone locations of adult entertainment establishments without violating the 1st Amendment.
  807. Renton v. Playtime Theaters
    1986 - Upheld separation or concentration requirements for adult uses where a substantial government interest exists.
  808. Procedural Due Process
    An assurance that all parties to the proceeding are treated fairly and equally.
  809. Pennsylvania Coal v. Mahon
    "1922 - Takings Case - Restrictions on Use - Justice Holmes wrote in opinion ""The general rule...is
  810. Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co.
    "1926 - Takings - Restrictions on Use -This case upheld zoning as constitutional under the United States Constitution
  811. Penn Central Transportation Co. v. New York City
    1978 - Takings - Restriction on Use - Upheld that the restrictions imposed (by the Landmarks Law) are substantially related to the general welfare and not only permit reasonable use but also afford appellants opportunities to further enhance the property.
  812. Agins v. City of Tiburon
    "1979 - Takings - Restriction on Use - Two prong test - 1 ""does not substantially advance legitimate state interests"" or 2 ""denies an owner economically viable use of his land"""
  813. Keystone Bituminous Coal Assn. v. DeBenedictis
    "1987 - Takings - Affirmed Agins Test 1 - Stated that some states interest are more ""legitimate than others"" The more defensible the states interest the more likely it will be upheld."
  814. Nollan v. California Coastal Commission
    1987 - Takings - Expanded Agins Test 1 required a Nexus between the taking and the state's interest.-
  815. Dolan v. City of Tigard
    "1994 - Takings - Expanded Agins Test 1 - ""required a reasonable relationship"" between the conditions to be imposed on a permit and the development's impact. ""rough proportionality"""
  816. Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council
    1992 - Takings - Expanded Agins test 2 - found a takings when the owner was called upon to sacrifice all economically beneficial uses in the name of the common good.
  817. Munn v. Illinois
    1877 - A landmark decision that paved the way for future governmental intervention in private development.
  818. Welch v. Swasey
    "1909 - The first clear-cut nationwide authority for communities to regulate development of private property through limitation of building heights
  819. Eubank v. City of Richmond
    1912 - Setback legislation declared constitutional.
  820. Hadacheck v. Sebastian
    1915 - Provided that the restriction of future profitable uses was not a taking of property without just compensation.
  821. Town of Windsor v. Whitney
    1920 - Made land subdivision regulations possible by holding that dedication of streets as a prerequisite to platting was possible.
  822. Second Prong of the Agins Test
    An owner may not be denied economically valuable use of his or her land.
  823. First Prong of the Agins Test
    Regulations must substantially advance a legitimate state (governmental) interest.
  824. Nexus
    The condition has a required degree of connection.
  825. Metromedia v. City of San Diego
    1981 - Ordinances that placed tighter restrictions on non-commercial signs than commercial signs violate the 1st Amendment.
  826. Young. v. American Mini Theaters
    1976 - Communities can zone locations of adult entertainment establishments without violating the 1st Amendment.
  827. Renton v. Playtime Theaters
    1986 - Upheld separation or concentration requirements for adult uses where a substantial government interest exists.
  828. Procedural Due Process
    An assurance that all parties to the proceeding are treated fairly and equally.
  829. Substantive Due Process
    Payment by government of just compensation to property owners when property is condemned or dimished by government action.
  830. Village of Belle Terre v. Boraas
    1974 - Upheld power to prohibit more than two unrelated individuals from residing together as a family.
  831. S. Burlington County NAACP v. Mount Laurel
    1972 - Held that communties in growing areas in the way of urban expansion must take their fair share of the region's growth.
  832. Construction Industry Assoc. or Sonoma County v. Petaluma
    Communities can restrict the number of building permits granted each year if reasonable.
  833. Golden v. Ramapo
    Upheld conditional development on the provision of services.
  834. Berman v. Parker
    Upheld redevelopment programs that took property in eminent domian and resold the property to private developers for redevelopment.
  835. Moore v. East Cleveland
    Cities cannot define family so that the definition prevents closely related individuals from living with each other.
  836. Associated Home Builders v. City of Livermore
    "1976 - Allowed for time phasing in future residential growth until performance conditions were met
  837. 1st English Evangical Luthern Church v. County of Los Angeles
    Court rejected concept that sole remedy for taking is payment of full value of property. City could either buy property outright or revoke ordinance and pay church for losses at time of trial.
  838. Rivers and Harbors Act
    "1899 - Prohibited the construction of any bridge
  839. Water Pollutant Control Act
    "1948 allowed the Surgeon General working w/ other governmental entities
  840. Water Quality Act
    1965 - Established the Water Pollution Control Administration within the Department of the Interior. This was the first time water quality was treated as an environmental concern rather than a public health concern.
  841. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
    1969
  842. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
    Provides that any major federal action or policy that has significant impact on environ will require Environmental Impact Analysis (EIS)
  843. Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
    Adresses: probable impact of proposed action- adverse environ effects that cannot be avoided- alternatives to proposed action-relationship btwn shortterm use man's environ & maint & enhancement of longterm productivity- irreversible & irretrievable commit
  844. Coastal Zone Management Act 1972
    "Mandates state programs to delinate coastal boundaries
  845. Federal Water Pollutant Control Act 1972
    Requires states to control water pollution
  846. Clean Water Act 1977
    "Amend to Fed Water Pollutant Control Act of 1972. Must have permit if discharge pollutants into body of water
  847. Clean Air (1990)
    Federal government sets ambient air quality standards and states devise methods to meet the standards.
  848. Clean Air Act
    Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR) are airsheds of our communities
  849. Clean Air Act
    PSD stds dictate total ambient & effluent stds & new air pollutions not allowed unless reduce pollutants > than pollutants contributed by new source.
  850. Ambient Standards
    Standards for air & water quality relatiing to quality of receiving environ. Baseline for gauging improvements.
  851. First Earth Day
    25680
  852. Metropolitan Water District of Southern California
    "Established in 1927
  853. Rachel Carson
    "Author of Silent Spring
  854. Effluent Standards
    Set restrictions on the discharge of pollutants into the environment. The EPA has effluent guidelines for more than 50 categories.
  855. Point Source Pollution
    "Discharged directly from a specific site
  856. Non-point Source Pollution
    Contaminated runoff from many sources.
  857. Potable Water
    Safe to drink.
  858. Aquifer
    One or more strata of rock or sediment that is saturated and sufficiently permeable to yield economically significant quantities of water to wells or springs.
  859. Estuary
    An area where fresh water meets salt water.
  860. Lagoon
    A shallow body of water that is located alongside a coast.
  861. Marsh
    "A type of freshwater
  862. Reservoir
    "A pond
  863. Surface Water
    "Includes rivers
  864. Swamp
    "A freshwater wetland that has spongy
  865. Watershed
    "A region drained by
  866. Wetlands
    "Include swamps
  867. Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD)
    Relates to air quality and requires that a project will not increase emissions above a specified increment.
  868. Endangered Species Act
    1973 - Provided protection of animal and plant species that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service designate as threatened or endangered. Act was later amended in 1988.
  869. Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA)
    "1978 - Promoted alternative energy sources
  870. "Comprehensive Environmental Response
    Compensation
  871. Brownfields
    "Land previously used for industrial purposes
  872. Greyfield
    "Economically obsolete
  873. EPA's Environmental Indicators Initiative
    "Numerical values from actual measurements of a pressure
  874. EPA's Environmental Indicators Initiative
    Draft 2003 - Multiyear effort to identify credible indicators to answer key questions pertaining to the environment & human health and to understand/improve what is know about current state of the environment & identify where additional info is needed.
  875. Biomass energy
    Uses organic material which is burned to create energy.
  876. Methane
    Is a naturally occurring byproduct of decaying plant and animal material. Gas is burned to produce electricity.
  877. Hydroelectric power
    "typically associated with large dams. It uses falling water to produce power
  878. Solar Energy
    uses photovoltaic panels to convert sunlight directly into electricity. The panels can be added together to create large systems.
  879. Wind power
    "Uses tall turbines (100 feet plus) to convert wind to electrical power. Multipple turbines built close together
  880. Insulation
    Allows for more efficient heating of a building.
  881. R-value
    "Ratings for insulationindicates the resistance to heat flow. The higher the number
  882. LEED
    "Developed by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC)
  883. Greenfield
    "A piece of undeveloped land
  884. "Comprehensive Environmental Response
    Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)"
  885. R-20
    Minimum R-value recommended for home insulation?
  886. Lowering a thermostat by 1 degree Fahrenheit can reduce a heating bill by what percent?
    Up to 3 percent
  887. Tennessee Valley Authority
    "Created in May 1933 to provide navigation
  888. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
    The system for granting and regulating discharge permits. Regulates both point and non-point sources that discharge pollutants into waters of the U.S.
  889. Secondary Treatment
    A biological process to remove dissolved organic matter from wastewater. Sewage microorganisms are cultivated and added to the wastewater. The microorganisms absorb organic matter from sewage as their food supply.
  890. Effluent
    "The discharge of pollutants into the environment in an untreated
  891. Mass Wasting
    The downslope movement of earth materials due to the force of gravity.
  892. "The ""Father of Zoning"". Helped shape Standard City Enabling Act 1928"
  893. "Cincinnati Lawyer. Played a key role in Cincinnati Plan (1925)
    Euclid v. Amber (1926)??"
  894. Daniel Hudson Burnham
    "Father of city planning in US. Among city planners is renowned for the influential 1909 ""Plan for Chicago"". Famous for his quote
  895. Daniel Hudson Burnham
    "His ""White City"" at the Columbian Expo inspired the ""City Beautiful Movement""
  896. Paul Davidoff
    "Founded the Suburban Action Institute in 1969
  897. Patrick Geddes
    "Author of the ""Cities in Evolution"". Considered the ""father"" of regional planning."
  898. Ebenezer Howard
    "Published ""Tomorrow
  899. Jane Jacobs
    "Author of 1961 book
  900. T.J. Kent Jr.
    "San Francisco - served as the coordinator for housing
  901. Pierre Charles L'Enfant
    "Plan for Washington DC - made use of grid pattern
  902. Kevin Lynch
    "Author of ""Image of the City"". Focused on how users perceive and organize spatial information as they navigate through cities. Coined the words ""imageability"" and ""wayfinding""."
  903. Ian McHarg
    "Wrote ""Design with Nature"". Father of Modern Ecology/Environmental Movement. Proposed the use of transfer of development rights (TDR) to preserve landscape. Renowned for his advocacy of ecological planning and for the layered mapping techniques."
  904. Lewis Mumford
    "Outspoken critic of the Regional Plan of NY 1929. Prolific author - ""The Culture of Cities"" (1938)- inspired city and regional planning efforts."
  905. "Fredrick Law Olmsted
    Sr."
  906. "Fredrick Law Olmsted
    Jr."
  907. Clarence Arthur Perry
    "Promoter of the neighborhood unit concept. Author of ""Housing for a Mechanic Age
  908. "Pullman
    George"
  909. Jacob Riis
    "Used photography and writing to reveal the terrible conditions of the urban poor in ""How The Other Half Lives"" (1890) and ""Children of the Poor"" (1892). Led to the first federal investigation of slums and to changes in NYC's housing laws"
  910. Charlotte Rumbold
    "Influential in citizen planning. Helped found the Ohio Planning Conference
  911. Mary K. Simkhovitch
    "Organized one of the nation's first settlement houses
  912. Clarence S. Stein
    "Co-designer of Radburn
  913. Catherine Bauer
    "Wrote ""Modern Housing"". She attributed the lack of low cost housing to the liberal intellectuals
  914. Clarence Perry
    "Father of the Neighborhood Unit Concept
  915. Frank Lloyd Wright
    "Wrote ""Broadacre City - A New Community Plan"" (1935)"
  916. Ebenezer Howard
    "Wrote ""Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform"" (1898)"
  917. Ian McHarg??
    "Wrote ""Design with Nature"" 1971 ??"
  918. Jacob Riis
    "Wrote ""How the Other Half Lives"" (1890) and ""Children of the Poor"" (1892)"
  919. "Jacobs
    Jane"
  920. Kevin Lynch
    "Image of the City (1960)
  921. Lewis Mumford
    "Wrote ""The Culture of Cities"" (1938)
  922. Patrick Geddes
    "Wrote ""Cities in Evolution"" (1915) Focus on place - Work - Folk"
  923. Sherry Arnstein
    "Wrote ""Ladder of Citizen Participation"""
  924. Peter Calthorpe
    "Developed the design feature ""Transit Oriented Developments"" (TOD's)"
  925. Saul Alinksy
    "Father of Neighborhood Organizing Movement
  926. Saul Alinksy ??
    "The organization uses boycotts to initiate change
  927. Robert Moses
    "Known as ""Great Expediter"" leading city planner in 1920's replacing Burnham. ""If the ends don't justify the means
  928. Thomas Adams
    "Secretary of the Garden City Association and the 1st manager of Letchworth
  929. Rachel Carson
    "Wrote Silent Spring
  930. Rexford Tugwell
    Head of the Resettlement Administration under FDR - began work on the greenbelt communities
  931. Joel Garreau
    "Wrote Edge City - Life on the New Frontier
  932. Catherine Bauer
    "Founder of American housing policy
  933. John Muir
    one of the earliest modern environmental preservationists Founded the Sierra Club.
  934. Richard Babcock
    "Author of ""The Zoning Game"" (1966) observations on American zoning practice."
  935. William Whyte
    "Knonw for ""Street Life Project"" (1969) - Authored several texts about urban planning and design and human behavior in various urban spaces."
  936. Saul Alinsky
    Was associated with advocacy planning.
  937. Harland Bartholomew
    "1916 - First full time city planner in the US
  938. Alfred Bateman
    First president of the American Society of Planning Officals
  939. Charles Lindbolm
    "Known for theory of incrementalism in policy and decsion making as described in his work the ""The Science of Muddling Through"" - 1959"
  940. Norman Krumholz
    Associated with the development of equity planning theory. Was head of Cleveland???s city planning from 1969 -1979.
  941. Herbert Simon
    Introduced the concept of Satisficing
  942. John Friedmann
    "Research focus is on processes of urbanization
  943. Amitai Etzioni
    Modern planning theorist - famous for work on socioeconomics and communitarianism believes individual rights and aspirations should be protected but that they should be inserted into a sense of the community
  944. George Haussmann
    Responsible for the 19th century Plan of Paris
  945. Christopher Stone
    "Known for 1972 book ""Should Trees Have Standing?"" discussed the authority to file suit in the Sierra Club v. Morton
  946. Peter Drucker
    Associated with Management by Objectives (MBO) - a process of agreeing upon objectives within an organization so that management and employees buy in to the objectives and understand what they are.
  947. John Logan & Harvey Molotch
    "Commonly associated with the term ""Growth Machine"""
  948. Ernest Burgess
    "Urban sociologist - research
  949. Homer Hoyt
    "Known for the ""Sector Model""
  950. Louis Wirth
    "Major contribution to social theory of urban space was a classic essay ""Urbanism as a Way of Life"" interests included city life
  951. Baron Georges-Eug??ne Haussmann
    "A French civic planner whose name is associated with the rebuilding of Paris
  952. Homer Hoyt
    "Known for the ""Sector Model"" aka Theory of Axial Development (1939)"
  953. Harris and Ullman
    "Proposed Multi-Nuclei Model in 1945 - progressive integration of a number of separate nuclei. Nodes become specialized by attributes: accessibility
  954. Earnest Burgess
    Concentric zone model with CBD in center and residential in outer zones. Pattern of ???Invasion and Succession??? would change pattern with inner zones pushing outer zones further out (1920s).
  955. Edward J. Kaiser
    "Focus on improving the quality of local land use plans and and developing land use planning strategies for hazard mitigation and environmental protection. Famous book ""Urban Land Use Planning"" 5th ed."
  956. Randall Arendt
    "In Rural by Design (1994) advocates creative
  957. James Kunstler
    "New Urbanist ""The Geography of Nowhere"" "" The City in Mind"" Anti Modernism
  958. Rooted in agriculture most humanly valuable. T. Jefferson & Hector St John de Crevecoeur
    Agrarian (1800s)
  959. total unrestricted competition in society ultimately benefits & individual hardships from competition essential to ultimate good of state. Exploit the poor...
    Laissez Faire (1800s)
  960. "Gov't involvement in public health & safety of worker. max standards
    min hsg standards
  961. "Beauty of public works projects to attract wealthy
    pleasant life of poor
  962. "Create broad
    tree lined aves
  963. "Burnham
    Lomsted
  964. "Big business lost interest
    awarenesss of corruption-movement declined but emphasis of physical site planning was internalized in planning movements regulating development of suburbs."
  965. "Began with Columbian Expo at Chicago worlds fair in 1893
    White City
  966. "Anti-urban
    agarian
  967. "Ebenezer Howard ""Tommorrow Peaceful Path to Reform 1898)"
    Garden City ((1920s in US)
  968. "Lethchworth
    England 1903-20
  969. "Influenced by Howard's cities & Ray Unwin's ""Hampstead Gardens"" (1907). 1st compr suburban neighborhood design
    planning & physical design of residential with spatial open
  970. "City of Motor Age
    superblocks & cul-de-sacs
  971. "Not really ""Garden City"" DID NOT HAVE planned greenbelt
    not self-contained
  972. "Emergency Relief Act 1935
    admin by Rural Resettlement Admin
  973. Never built because RRA stopped by courts -Fed govt couldn't use power of eminent domain that way.
    "Greenbrook
  974. Massive land subdivisions and single-family hsg projects with few community facilities & built on model of war hsg projects of 1940s.
    "New Towns: Levittown
  975. "Major amenities
    large open spaces
  976. Overlapping communities
    New Towns: Columbia MD (1960s)
  977. The Plan of Chicago
    (1909) First comprehensive plan in US. Proposed Public housing as a proper government function.
  978. The Works of Clarence Stein
    Co-designer of Radburn N.J. the first New Town in America 1928
  979. The Cincinnati Plan
    (1925) The Ford-Goodrich plan for this city. First officially adopted Plan. Landmark in the 20's because of its scope was far broader than other plans of the period. Legal connection between zoning and plan.
  980. Greenbelt Towns
    Visualized as Green-Belt Cities.
  981. "Country Club Plaza
    Kansas City
  982. "Euclid v. Amber
    US Supreme Court"
  983. The New York City Zoning Code
    (1915) First comprehensive zoning code in the US prepared under the leadership of Edward Bassett.
  984. "The Plan of Riverside
    IL"
  985. The San Francisco Zoning Ordinance
    "(1867) Prevented slaughter houses and hog storage in certain areas
  986. The Plan of Washington DC
    (1791) Radial/gridiron plan by Peirre L'Enfant influenced plans across the US.
  987. "The Plan of Savannah
    GA"
  988. "Forest Hills Gardens
    Long Island
  989. "Radburn at Fairlawn
    NJ"
  990. Hawaii's State Land Use Law
    (1961) It was the first such statewide regulatory system in the US.
  991. "The Plan of Vieux Carre
    New Orleans"
  992. "The Town of Norris
    TN"
  993. Yellowstone National Park
    (1872) First National Park in the US.
  994. "Central Park
    New York City"
  995. City Beautiful Movement
    "Re-create cities as works of art
  996. Greenbelt Towns
    "Begun in 1935 with the New Deal Program ""Rural Resettlement Administration"" RPA under USDA."
  997. "Greenbelt
    MD- Greenhills
  998. "Kalamazoo Mall
    MI"
  999. "Northland Center
    Michigan
  1000. "Was a component of the New Town of Columbia
    Maryland."
  1001. "Was a component of the New Town of Columbia
    Maryland."
  1002. Characterized by Local Management & self-government without the need from intervention from the state.
    Garden City Movement
  1003. Planning should be designed for socioeconomic stratums just above the poor.
    Garden City Movement
  1004. "What was the "" Standard State Zoning & Enabling Act""? Year? Who prompted its development?"
    The Standard State Zoning Enabling Act (SZEA) established states' right to plan through zoning of land uses. Secretary of State Herber Hoover led its development in 1924.
  1005. What were some of the major provisions of the SZEA?
    "1) grant of zoning power
  1006. What ws the Standard City Planning Enabling Act? Year? Who led its development?
    The SCPEA was a 1928 Federal legislation that promoted city master or comprehensive planning. Effort led by Sec of State Herbert Hoover.
  1007. What the primary priciples of the SCPEA?
    "1) organization & power of a planning commission to develop a master plan
  1008. Where was the first rural zoning established? When?
    Wisconsin in 1929
  1009. When was Sunnyside Garden built? Designers? Builders? Location? Significance?
    "Sunnyside Gardens was the first PLANNED ""Garden City"" in the US. Located in Queen
  1010. "When was Radburn
    NJ built? Builders? Significance?"
  1011. What Federal Department was responsible for the SZEA & SCPEA? Who led it? What years?
    Te SZEA & SCPEA were established by US Department of Commerce which was led by Sec of State Herbert Hoover. The SZEA was completed in 1924 & SCPEA was completed in 1928.
  1012. What was the first comprehensive plan to be adopted in the US? When?
    The 1925 Cincinnatti Plan.
  1013. "Describe the ""Neighborhood Unit Principle"". Who developed it? What Year?"
    The neighborhood is the core of the community and all people should be able to acess all parts of the community from the neighborhood. Developed by Clarence Perry in 1929.
  1014. "Explain what the ""Concentric Zone Model"" of city planning."
    "The Concentric Zone Model is a planning theory which states that a city is developed in rings. Core is the business district- the 1st circle is a low-income
  1015. "What book is about the ""Concentric Zone Model"" of city planning? Authors? Year? What is another name for this model?"
    "The City written by Ernest Burgess
  1016. Where was the first county wide planning/ regional plan in the US?
    Los Angeles County in 1922.
  1017. What was the predecessor to JAPA? When was it published? What organization?
    City Planning by the American City Planning Institute in 1925.
  1018. Where was the first regional planning commission formed? Year?
    Los Angeles County in 1922
  1019. "What is the significance of the ""Regional Plan for New York and Environs""? Author? Year?"
    "It was the first plan focused on ""Suburban Development"" by planning for highway construction & suburban recreational facilities. Developed by Clarence Stein & Lewis Mumford from 1922- 1929."
  1020. Where was the first historic commission established? Year? Name?
    "New Orleans established ""Vieux Carre Commission"" in 1921."
  1021. "What is the significance of Mariemont
    OH? Year? Designers?"
  1022. What is the planning significance of the stock market crash?
    The proverty ensued prompted people to think about planning on a national level in order to address the needs of all.
  1023. What is the Federal Roads Act?
    Federal Roads Act of 1920 called for the widening of streets which led to land use zoning & development of new roads.
  1024. When & where was the 1st National Convention of Planning
    "1909 in Washington
  1025. What was the Inland Waterway Commission? Founder? Year?
    "Federal commission to encourage multipurpose planning in waterway development: Navigation power
  1026. "What did the ""White City"" bring about? What is its significance?"
    The Chicago Plan of 1909. It was the first long range comprehensive plan for the orderly development of an American City.
  1027. "What was the ""Antiquities Act of 1906"""
    The 1st law to institute federal protection for preserving archealogical sites.
  1028. "What was the ""Public Lands Commission""? Who appointed it? Year?"
    "In 1903
  1029. When was the original Garden City constructed? Where?
    "Letchworth
  1030. What is significant about the NY State Tenement House Law? Who led its passage? Year?
    "It established the basis for the revision of NYV codes that outlawed tenements such as the ""dumbell"" style. Lawerence Veeler in 1901"
  1031. "What was the ""NY Committee on Congestion of Population""? Who led it? Year?"
    A committee established in NY to decentralize the population. Founded in 1907 by Benjamin Marsh.
  1032. What was the country's first local civil center plan? Year? Who developed it?
    "In 1903 Daniel Burnham
  1033. Where was the first town planning board created? Year?
    "Harford
  1034. What was the first major city to apply the City Beautiful Principles? Year? Developer?
    San Francisco in 1906. The plans were developed by Daniel Burnham.
  1035. "When was ""Garden Cities of To-morrow"" Published? Author?"
    1902 by Ebenezer Howard
  1036. "What was the ""US Reclamation Act"""
    A 1902 federal legislation which allowed the proceeds of public land sales to be used to build water storage and irragation systems.
  1037. When was the National Park Service Established? What was its charge?
    The NPS was established in 1916 to conserve and preserve resources of special value.
  1038. What major transportation resource was completed in 1914? Why is it significant?
    The Panama Canal created a shipping channel between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
  1039. "When was the ""US Housing Corp & Emergency Fleet Corp"" established? What did it do?"
    Established in 1918 the US Housing Corp & Emergency Fleet Corp helped build housing for WWI workers. It influenced early public housing efforts.
  1040. What was the first major textbook on city planning? When was it written?
    "Carrying out the City Plan written by Flavel Shurtleff"" in 1914"
  1041. "What is the importance of the ""Principle of Scientific Management""? Who wrote it? When?"
    It spearheaded the effeciency movement in city government. It was written by Frederick Winslow Taylor in 1911.
  1042. What was the predecessor to the American Institute of Planners? Year was it established? 1st President?
    "American City Planning Institute established in 1917 led by Frederick Law Olmstead
  1043. What is the significance of the American City Planning Institute?
    "It was the first professional organization of planners led by Frederick Law Olmstead
  1044. Who passes the nation's 1st comprehensive zoning law? When? Who led the effort?
    NYC Board of Estimates in 1916 under the leadership of George McAneny & Edward Basset.
  1045. When was the first enabling legislation created? Where?
    1909 in Wisconsin
  1046. What was the first city to use land use zoning to guide development? Year
    Los Angeles in 1909
  1047. What was the first city to hire a full time employee for the planning commission? Who did they hire? Year?
    "Newark
  1048. What city adoped the first comprehensive zoning code? Who wrote it? Year?
    New York City adopted the first comprehensive zoning code in 1916. It was written by Edward Bassett.
  1049. What was one of the pioneering books about regional planning? Year?
    "Cities in Evolution by the Father of Regional Planning
  1050. What early book about planning was adopted for grade school classrooms? Year?
    Wacker's Manual of the Plan of Chicago written by Water Moody in 1914.
  1051. What early planning book was written by Nelson Lewis? Year?
    Planning of a Modern City in 1916

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview