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Freud's 3 levels of awareness
- conscious: aware at any given time
- preconscious: easily retrieved
- unconscious: repressed
Freud's personality structure:
- ID: instinctual (pleasure, source)
- Ego: contorls our actions & perceptions (problem solver, reason)
- Superego: conscience (perfection, moral, ideal)
- -talk therapy (cathartic--getting it all off your chest)
- -revealing the unconscious
- -psychodynamic (shorter therapy)
Freud's Psychodynamic techniques: transference
- Develops when the patient experiences feeligns toward the nurse/therapist that were originally held toward significant others in his life.
- -when it occurs, these feelings become available for exploration with the pt
- -transfers emotional baggage to us
- -act as how they believe we will respond based on their relationships
Freud's Psychodynamic techniques: countertransference
- health care worker's unconscious, personal response to the pt
- -pt brings out our emotions so that we respond inappropriately
- Tends to last longer.
- Oriented toward the here and now and makes less of an attempt to reconstruct the developmental origins of conflicts.
Interpersonal theory: Harry Stack Sullivan's definition of personality
behavior that can be observed within interpersonal relationships
Harry Stack Sullivan
Sullivan: Security operations
Measures that hte individual employs to reduce anxiety and enhance security
Margaret Mahler's theory
Theory of Object Relations: first experience infants has with caregiver
Interpersonal model focuses on the...
- here and now.
- -Time is spent examining relationships
- -therapist becomes a participant observer"
Interpersonal model works to change...
dysfunctional relationship patterns
Dogs were able to anticipate when food would be forthcoming and would begin to salivate even before actually tasting the meat
John Watson's theory
- Behaviorism Theory: personality traits and responsive were socially leanred through classical onditioning
- -Albert liked animals. Watson made a loud noise with a hammer every time the infant reached for a white rat. Albert became terrified at the sight of white fur/hair even without a loud noise.
- Operant conditioning: Volunteered behaviors are learned through consequences and reenforcement
- Positive: reward system
- Negative: removal of an objectionable/aversive stimuli
- -Modeling (role model--learns through imitation)
- -Operant conditioning (Positive reinforcement--token economy)
- -Systematic desensitization (steps to reduce fear of elevators)
- -Aversion therapy (aka punishment--substance abuse disulfiram)
Beck's Theoretical principle
Emotions and behavior are largely determined by the way in which people think about the world and their place in it.
Common cognitive distortions
- mental filter
- disqualifying the positive
- jumping to conclusions
- emotional reasonong
- "should" and "must" statements
Cognitive Behavior Therapy models
- -systematic desensitization (counter-conditionign)
- -exposure/response prevention (stay and work through the stress)
- -cognitive modification
- -assertiveness training
- -stress management
- -problem solving
- -positie and negative reinforcement
- *Psychosocial development: culture and society exert significant influence on personality.
- -Personality was not set in stone @ age 5, but continued to develop through the lifespan
- -Failures at one stage can be rectified at another stage
Humanistic Theories: Maslow's Hierarchy of needs
Human beings are active participants in life, striving for self-actualization
Maslow: physiological needs
Most basic needs: food, O2, H2O, rest, sex, elimination
Security, protection, stability, structure, order, limits
Maslow: love and belonging
affiliation, affectionate relationships, love
self-esteem related to competency, achievement, esteem from others
- Becomign everythign one is capable of
- -moreality, creativity, spontaneity, problem-solving, tack of prejudice, acceptance of facts
- 1. Physiological
- 2. Safety
- 3. Love and belonging
- 4. Esteem
- 5. Self-actualization
Carl Rogers: client centered
- unconditioned positive regard
- *emotional investment in the clietn is essentail int he therapeutic process
Biological theories focus on..
Neurological, chemical, biological, genetic
- Psychopharmacology (primary)
- stress management
- weight management
Peplau: nurse-patient relationship
Shifting the focus from what the nurses do to patients to what nurses do with patients.
Peplau: Participant Observer
mutuality, respect for the pt, unconditional acceptance, empathy