AICP Exam Study

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AICP Exam Study
2013-01-31 17:07:56

AICP Exam notecards
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  1. When and where was the first City Planning
    1909 - Washington DC
  2. What book was the first known formal instruction
    in city planning below the college level? When was it published and who was the
    1912 - Wackers Manual of the Plan of Chicago - Walter Moody
  3. Carrying Out the City Plan - Who wrote it, why is it important, and when was it written
    in 1914, Flavel Shurtleff wrote Carrying Out the City Plan, the first major textbook on city planning.
  4. AIP - what does it stand for, when was it founded, and who was the first president?
    In 1917, the American Institute of Planners (AIP) was founded, with Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. as the first president. The AIP was the forerunner of the American Institute of Certified Planners (AICP)*.
  5. When was the first issue of City Planning published
    In 1925, the American City Planning Institute and the National Conference on City Planning published the first issue of City Planning, the predecessor to the current Journal of the American Planning Association.
  6. When was ASPO founded and what does it stand for?
    In 1934, the American Society of Planning Officials (ASPO) was founded.
  7. When was the first code of ethics for professional planners adopted?
    In 1971, AIP adopted a Code of Ethics for professional planners.
  8. When was the first exam for AIP membership administered?
    In 1977, the first exam for AIP membership was administered.
  9. When was the APA created and what two organizations joined to form it?
    In 1978, the American Planning Association was created through a merger of AIP and ASPO.
  10. Who published the first isue of the Journal of Planning Education. When was it published?
    In 1981, the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning published the first issue of The Journal of Planning Education and Research.
  11. What city passed the first land use zoning restriction on the location of obnxoxius uses? What year was it passed?
    In 1867, San Francisco passed the first land use zoning restriction on the location of obnoxious uses.
  12. Which City created the first local civic center plan. What year was it created and what 3 individuals worked on the plan's development?
    In 1903, Cleveland created the first local civic center plan in the U.S. Daniel Burnham, John Carrere, and Arnold Brunner were responsible for the plan's development.
  13. What city was the first to apply the City beautiful principles? What year was the plan finished and who wrote it?
    In 1906, San Francisco was the first major American city to apply the City Beautiful principles, using a plan developed by Daniel Burnham.
  14. When and where was the first town planning board created?
    In 1907, the first town planning board was created in Hartford, Connecticut.
  15. Who created the first metropolitan regional plan? What City was it completed for and what year was it completed?
    In 1909, Daniel Burnham created the first metropolitan regional plan for Chicago.
  16. Which state was the first to pass enabling legislation and which City was the first to use land use zoning to guide development? What year?
    1909 - Wisconsin was the first state to pass enabling legislation and Los Angeles was the first city to use land use zoning to guide development.
  17. When and where was the first full-time employee hired for a City Planning Commission? What was the commissioners name?
    In 1914, Newark, New Jersey hired the first full-time employee for a city planning commission, Harland Bartholomew. Bartholomew went on to become one of the most famous planning consultants.
  18. What City adopted the first comprehensive zoning code? Who wrote it and when was it adopted?
    In 1916, New York City adopted the first comprehensive zoning code, written by Edward Bassett.
  19. What county formed the first regional planning commission? When?
    In 1922, Los Angeles County formed the first regional planning commission.
  20. When were the Standard state zoning enabling act and the Standard City Planning enabling act and the issued? Who issued it and when?
    In 1924, Secretary Herbert Hoover, of the U.S. Department of Commerce, issued the Standard State Zoning Enabling Act.
  21. What was the first major US city to adopt a comp plan? Who produced it and when?
    In 1925, The City of Cincinnati was the first major U.S. city to adopt a comprehensive plan, produced by Alfred Bettman and Ladislas Segoe
  22. When was the first National Planning Board created? When was it abolished?
    n 1933, the first U.S. National Planning Board was created. It was later renamed the National Resources Planning Board and then abolished in 1943.
  23. Where and when was the first federally supported public housing built? Where was the first housing occupied?
    In 1934, the first federally supported public housing was constructed in Cleveland, although the first to be occupied was located in Atlanta.
  24. What was the first state to introduce statewide zoning? When was it introduced, and when was it amended?
    In 1961, Hawaii was the first state to introduce statewide zoning, which was later amended in 1978.
  25. Which US department released the first Standard City Planning Enabling Act? When, and who was the Secretary in charge?
    In 1928, the U.S. Department of Commerce, under Secretary Herbert Hoover, released the Standard City Planning Enabling Act.
  26. Who wrote How the other Half lives? When was it published and what did it influence?
    How the Other Half Lives by Jacob Riis, published in 1890. This book resulted in housing reform in New York City.
  27. What book initiated the Garden City movement? Who wrote it and when was it published?
    Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform by Ebenezer Howard, published in 1898. This book initiated the Garden City movement.
  28. What book was adopted as a textbook for eigth graders in Chicago?
    Wacker's Manual of the Plan of Chicago by Walter Moody, published in 1912. This book was adopted as a textbook for eighth graders in Chicago.
  29. The first major textbook on City Planning - Author and date?
    Carrying Out the City Plan by Flavel Shurtleff, published in 1914. This book was the first major textbook on city planning.
  30. Who wrote Cities in Evolution? when was it written and what is the book about?
    Cities in Evolution by Patrick Geddess, published in 1915. This book centers on regional planning
  31. Who wrote Planning of the Modern City? when?
    Planning of the Modern City by Nelson Lewis, published in 1916.
  32. What book did Ladislas Segoe write? When was it published and why is it relevant?
    Local Planning Administration by Ladislas Segoe, published in 1941. This book was the first in the Green Book Series produced by the International City/County Management Association.
  33. Who wrote Urban Land Use Planning? when?
    Urban Land Use Planning by F. Stuart Chapin, published in 1957. This book became a common textbook on land use planning.
  34. What book did Kevin Lynch write? what concepts did it introduce/design?
    Image of the City by Kevin Lynch, published in 1960. This book defines basic concepts within the city, such as edges and nodes.
  35. Jane Jacobs - book name, date, focus of book?
    The Death and Life of Great American Cities by Jane Jacobs, published in 1961. Jacobs provided a critical look at planners and planning, with a special focus on the mistakes of urban renewal.
  36. Who wrote silent Spring and what is it about?
    Silent Spring by Rachel Carlson, published in 1962. This book focuses on the negative effects of pesticides on the environment.
  37. What book did TJ Kent write? when?
    The Urban General Plan by TJ Kent, published in 1964.
  38. What book did Alfred Reins write? when? whis is it improtant?
    With Heritage So Rich edited by Alfred Reins, published in 1966. This is a seminal book in historic preservation.
  39. Who wrote design with nature? when? what is it about?
    Design with Nature by Ian McHarg, published in 1969. This book focuses on conservation design
  40. What book did Wiliam Whyte write? when? what does the book promote?
    The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces by Wiliam Whyte, published in 1980. This book promotes the use of environmental psychology and sociology in urban design.
  41. Thomas Adams
    was an important planner during the Garden City movement. secretary of the Garden City Association and became the first manager of Letchworth. He developed a number of garden suburbs in England and later went on to teach planning at MIT and Harvard.
  42. Saul Alinsky
    advocate of community organizing. organized Chicago’s poor late 1930s and 1940s. 1946 published Reveille for Radicals encouraged poor to become involved in American democracy. published Rules for Radicals, which 13 rules for community organizing.
  43. Sherry Arnstein
    wrote “A Ladder of Citizen Participation” for the Journal of the American Planning Association in 1969. This article describes the levels of involvement by citizens depending on the form of participation utilized.
  44. Rachel Carson
    wrote Silent Spring, an important book in environmental planning.
  45. Rexford Tugwell
    Resettlement Administration head.worked on greenbelt cities program,construction of new self-sufficient cities.closely involved in the development of Arthurdale,WV Resettlement Administration community.NY City Planning Commissioner governor of Puerto Rico
  46. Sir Raymond Unwin
    was an English town planner and designer of Letchworth. He later lectured at the University of Birmingham in England and Columbia University.
  47. Catherine Bauer Wurster
    founder of American housing policy. worked to reform policy related to housing and city planning.served as executive secretary of the Regional Planning Association of America.wrote Modern Housing. Influential in the passage of the Housing Act of 1937.
  48. The McMillan Plan
    1901 - City Beautiful design is the McMillan Plan of 1901 for Washington D.C.
  49. The Land Ordinance of 1785
    provided for rectangular land survey of Old Northwest.completed following the end of the Revolutionary War.provided systematic way to divide and distribute land to the public.established sections and townships.goal to raise money through the sale of land
  50. Homestead Act
    1862-Lincoln-provided 160 acres land to settlers for $18 and guaranteed five years of residence.resulted in settlement of 270 million acres,10 percent of the land area of the USA.Mass farming led to creation of the dust bowl.Ended in 1976(1986 Alaska)
  51. General Land Law Revision Act
    1891 was passed by Congress. This Act provided the President of the United States with the power to create forest preserves by of the earliest preservation efforts. Yellowstone Park was granted as part of this act
  52. Forest Management Act,
    1897 allowed the Secretary of the Interior to manage forest preserves. the regulated harvesting of timber, mining of mineral resources, and use of water on forest reservations may be permitted by the Secretary of the Interior.
  53. US Reclamation Act
    1902- allowed the funds raised from the sale of public land in arid states to be used to construct water storage and irrigation systems.led to the eventual damming of nearly every major western river.
  54. Public Lands Commission
    In 1903, President Theodore Roosevelt appointed the commission to propose rules for land development and management.
  55. Antiquities Act
    1906-first law to provide federal protection for archaeological sites.allowed for the designation of National Monuments.created to protect prehistoric Indian ruins and artifacts.president can designate national monuments without congress approval.
  56. The Resettlement Administration
    formed in 1935 to carry out experiments in population resettlement and land reform. The result was the development of Greenbelt towns. folded in January of 1937. brainchild of Rexford G. Tugwell in Franklin Roosevelt's administration.
  57. Serviceman's Readjustment Act
    1944 commonly known as the GI Bill, guaranteed home loans to veterans. The result was the rapid development of suburbs.
  58. Resettlement Administration
    Roosevelt-1935. This agency was responsible for the New Towns program which developed 0three cities based on Howard's (garden city) ideas: Greendale, Wisconsin; Greenhills, Ohio; and Greenbelt, Maryland. Additionally, 99 other new towns were planned.
  59. New Towns Act
    1946- UK led to the development of dozen communities based on Howard's ideas
  60. Park Forest IL
    following WWI - New town
  61. Alfred Bettman and Ladislas Segoe
    Developed the Cincinnati Plan 1925. First comp plan ever
  62. McMillan Plan
    plan for Washington DC - City Beautiful -1901
  63. The Regional Plan for New York and Environs
    Between 1922 and 1929, the Regional Plan for New York and Environs was created. The plan focused on suburban development, highway construction, and suburban recreational facilities. Stein and Mumford were involved in the creation of the plan.
  64. U.S. Housing Act of 1954
    required cities to develop comprehensive plans and provided funding for planning under Section 701. problem - it led to the creation of plans for the purpose of acquiring federal funds rather than to truly plan for communities.
  65. first skyscraper
    chicago 1885
  66. first dept. store
    salt lake city 1868
  67. first subway
    boston 1897
  68. first comprehensive zoning ordinance
    NYC 1916
  69. Fiscal Impact Analysis
    Analysis calculates total cost of a project to the City. Fiscal impact analysis may also be defined as cost-revenue analysis.
  70. Cost Effectiveness Analysis
    compares two choices, so to annex or to not annex.
  71. Cost Benefit Analysis
    is used to determine the benefits of large projects
  72. ISTEA
    ISTEA (Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act) 1991 – Presented overall intermodal approach. Gave MPO’s more power.
  73. TEA-21
    (Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century) 1998 – Additional planning considerations required: support MPO economy, increase safety, increase accessibility, environmental enhancement, increase connectivity, efficient management, and preservation of
    (Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users) 2005 – Increased focus on safety.
  75. PERT
    Program Evaluation Review Technique is a line chart that shows how tasks are dependent on each other. In PERT it is very easy to see how tasks are dependent upon each other.
  76. GANTT
    is a popular type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule
  77. GAM
    Goals Achievement Matrix is a chart that shows the anticipated attainment of a project’s goals and the assignment of accomplishing a goal to a group.
  78. Linear programming
    is a project management method that attempts to find the optimum design solution for a project. This system takes a set of decision variables within constraints and comes up with an optimum design solution.
  79. Critical Path Method
    Each project task has a known amount of time to complete and cannot be completed before the previous one is completed. The longest pathway is the critical pathway.
  80. Fiscal zoning
    is the concept that you are making land use decisions based on the fiscal impact of the community.
  81. Economic forecasting
    is the process of making predictions about the economy as a whole or in part. Relevant models include: Economic base analysis, Shift-share analysis, Input-output model
  82. Economic base analysis
    Briefly, activities in an area divide into two categories – basic and non-basic. Basic industries are those exporting from the region; non-basic (or service) industries support basic industries
  83. Shift/share analysis
    is a technique sometimes used for retrospectively decomposing changes, usually in employment, in a set of urban areas or regions.
  84. Input-output model
    uses a matrix representationof a nation's (or a region's) economy to predict the effect of changes in one industry on others and by consumers, government, and foreign suppliers on the economy.
  85. Advocacy planning brought
    planning into the public eye and assisted in recognizing the different needs of interest groups in the community.
  86. Alinsky's Organization
    The organization uses boycotts to initiate change. A paid organizer is used to organize people. An invitation is given to members of a community to participate in the organization.
  87. Sheri Arnstein wrote
    A Ladder of Citizen Participation, 1969.
  88. Paul Davidoff is associated with
    Advocacy Planning
  89. Herbert Simon
    is responsible for the concept of organizational decision-making as it is known today
  90. null hypothesis
    s a hypothesis set up to be nullified or refuted in order to support an alternative hypothesis
  91. Nominal Group Technique
    is a decision-making method for use among groups of many sizes, who want to make their decision quickly, as by a vote, but want everyone's opinions taken into account
  92. Delphi Method
    is a systematic interactive forecasting method for obtaining forecasts from a panel of independent experts
  93. Who wrote The Intelligence of Democracy?
    Charles Lindblom. Discusses Citizen Participation
  94. In what year was the Civil Rights Act passed?
  95. Associated Home Builders of Greater East Bay v. City of Livermore
    The Court upheld temporary moratoriums on building permits.
  96. Welch v. Swasey; 214 U.S. 91 (1909)
    The Court established the right of municipalities to regulate building height.
  97. Eubank v. City of Richmond; U.S. Supreme Court (1912)
    The Court first approved the use of setback regulations, although it overturned the setbacks in this case.
  98. Hadacheck v. Sebastian; U.S. Supreme Court (1915)
    The Court first approved the regulation of the location of land uses.
  99. Nectow v. City of Cambridge; U.S. Supreme Court (1928)
    The Court used a rational basis test to strike down a zoning ordinance because it had no valid public purpose (e.g., to promote the health, safety, morals, or welfare of the public).
  100. Southern Burlington County NAACP v. Township of Mount Laurel; New Jersey Supreme Court (1975)
    The Court found that Mount Laurel had exclusionary zoning that prohibited multifamily, mobile home, or low- to moderate-income housing. The court required the Town to open its doors to those of all income levels.
  101. Golden v. Planning Board of the Town of Ramapo; New York State Court of Appeals (1972)
    The court upheld a growth management system that awarded points to development proposals based on the availability of public utilities, drainage facilities, parks, road access, and firehouses. A proposal would only be approved upon reaching a certain poin
  102. Construction Industry of Sonoma County v. City of Petaluma; U.S. Court of Appeals for the 4th Circuit (1975)
    The Court upheld quotas on the annual number of building permits issued.
  103. Young v. American Mini Theaters, Inc.; U.S. Supreme Court (1976)
    The Court upheld a zoning scheme that decentralized sexually oriented businesses in Detroit
  104. Members of City Council v. Taxpayers for Vincent; U.S. Supreme Court (1984)
    The Court found that the regulation of signs was valid for aesthetic reasons as long as the ordinance does not regulate the content of the sign. If the regulation is based on sign content, it must be justified by a compelling governmental interest.
  105. City of Renton v. Playtime Theatres, Inc.; U.S. Supreme Court (1986)
    The Court found that placing restrictions on the time, place, and manner of adult entertainment is acceptable. The ordinance was treating the secondary effects (such as traffic and crime) not the content.
  106. Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act of 2000
    that no government may implement land use regulation in a manner that imposes substantial burden on the religious assembly or institution, unless the government demonstrates that imposition of burden both is in furtherance of compelling government interst
  107. Agins v. City of Tiburon; U.S. Supreme Court (1980)
    The Court upheld a city's right to zone property at low-density and determined this zoning was not a taking. Government action not a regulatory taking if it substantially advanced a legitimate government interest.
  108. MBO
    Management by Objective: is a process of agreeing upon objectives within an organization so that management and employees agree to the objectives and understand what they are.
  109. Which city had the first regional plan?
    Plan of Chicago, 1909
  110. Is school enrollment part of the local economy?
  111. Who designed Columbia, Maryland?
    James Rouse. 1967
  112. Capital Improvement Budgets are prepared for what length of time?
    One year.
  113. Location Quotient
    is the formulat for computing basic and non-basic industries.
  114. Non-basic industry
    Service Industry.
  115. James Rouse
    Designed Columbia, Maryland. It began with the idea that a city could enhance its residents' quality of life. 1967
  116. First Council of Governments
    1954. Detroit area. Purpose to confront areawide problems.
  117. Alfred Bettman
    -1st President of ASPO. -Argued in favor of zoning before Supreme Court (Euclid v Ambler - 1926) - Introduced concept of Comprehensive Plan. Co-author: Cincinnati Plan. - part in creating Capital Improvements Budget.
  118. Ladislas Segoe
    - Cincinnati Plan - Wrote Local Planning Administration (1941) the first "Green Book" - Early consultant
  119. Judtih Innes
    Writes about Consensus Planning. Professor at Berkeley
  120. Consensus Planning
    Consensus decision-making is a group decision making process that not only seeks the agreement of most participants, but also to resolve or mitigate the objections of the minority to achieve the most agreeable decision.
  121. Which planned community built in 1923 foreshadowed the New Urbanism movement?
    Mariemont, Ohio
  122. Norman Krumholz
    Advocate of equity planning
  123. Equity Planning
    Gov. Planners should try to reallocate public/private resources to disavantaged
  124. Paul Davidoff
    Advocacy Planner
  125. First Major Shopping Center
    Northland, near Detroit, 1954
  126. Null Hypothesis
    A null hypothesis is a neutral statement that does not suggest the direction of the result
  127. Mariemont, Ohio
    Mariemont is a planned community in Hamilton County, Ohio, United States. Founded in the 1920's by Mary Emery it foreshadowed the New Urbanism movement.
  128. Amitai Etzioni
    Introduced concept of Mixed Scanning.
  129. The Growing Smart Legislative Guidebook
    The Growing Smart Legislative Guidebook and its accompanying User Manual are the culmination of APA's seven-year Growing Smart project, an effort to draft the next generation of model planning and zoning legislation for the U.S
  130. The Housing Act of which year called for slum clearance?
  131. What data was eliminated from the 2000 census
    Source of water
  132. Charles Lindblom
    Incremental Planning
  133. Mixed Scanning
    A Compromise between Rational and Incremental Planning
  134. Rational Planning Model
    Set Goals, Determine Alternatives, Evaluate Alternative, Choose Alternative, Implement, Evaluate
  135. Transactive Planning
    Mutual learing: Planner shares technical. Neighborhood shares communty info. Doesn't work with huge difference of opinion.
  136. Megalopolis
    an area with multiple-cities with a combined population of more than 10 million inhabitants
  137. Number of wireless sites in 2005:
  138. Radical Planning
    Gives the power to the people.
  139. 701 Plans
    Housing Act of 1954 provided matching funds for developing comprehensive plans through Sec 701 of the act
  140. John Friedmann
    Associate with Transactive Planning and Radical Planning
  141. Regional tax sharing
    Think of Lehi/Orem stealing our retail base to pay for their growth. RTS would disincentify edge cities from seeking out commercial. Therefore RTS is a regional growth stragegy method.
  142. Communicative Planning
    The current theory of choice: Planner listens and assist in developing consensus.
  143. Clarence Perry
    Developed Neighborhood Unit Concept debued in his Regional Survey of New York and its Environs (1929)
  144. Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon, 260 U.S. 393 (1922)
    The U.S. Supreme Court indicated, for the first time, that regulation of land use might be a taking.
  145. Lewis Mumford
    Cofounder Regional Planning Association.
  146. Berman v. Parker, 348 U.S. 26 (1954)
    Established aesthetics and redevelopment as valid public purposes for exercising the power of eminent domain.
  147. Clarence Stein
    Codesigned Radburn. Founding member Regional Planning Association.
  148. Cheney v. Village 2 at New Hope, Inc.,
    Legitimized the planned unit development (PUD) process.
  149. William Whyte
    People watcher. Human behavior in urban spaces.
  150. Henry Wright
    Codesigned Radburn, NJ
  151. Citizens to Preserve Overton Park, Inc. v. Volpe,
    Established the "hard look" doctrine for environmental impact review. Must include alternatives in EIS
  152. Who wrote "Regional Survey of New York and its Environs" (1929)
    Clarence Perry
  153. Calvert Cliffs' Coordinating Committee v. Atomic Energy Commission
    Made National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) requirements judicially enforceable.
  154. Sierra Club v. Morton
    Opened up environmental citizen suits to discipline the resource agencies.
  155. Golden v. Planning Board of Ramapo
    Recognized growth phasing programs. AFPO's
  156. Just v. Marinette County
    Integrated public trust theories into a modern regulatory scheme. Shoreland zoning provided for creation of conservancy, rec, and other purposes along waterbodies is constitutional.
  157. Fasano v. Board of County Commissioners of Washington County
    Required zoning to be consistent with comprehensive plans and recognized that rezonings may be quasi-judicial as well as legislative.
  158. Young v. American Mini Theaters, Inc.,
    Opened up the possibility to control pornography via land use.
  159. Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corp.,
    Established that discriminatory intent is required to invalidate zoning actions with racially disproportionate impacts.
  160. Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill
    Justified modern Endangered Species Act law (protecting the snail darter).
  161. Penn Central Transportation Co. v. City of New York,
    Introduced a means-end balancing test for regulatory takings and validated historic preservation controls.
  162. Agins v. City of Tiburon
    Used an alternative takings test to the Penn Central test.U.S. Supreme Court rules that the open space zoning ordinance of the city of Tiburon, California, does not result in a taking of property without payment of just compensation.
  163. Metromedia, Inc. v. City of San Diego,
    Extended commercial speech to aesthetic regulation.
  164. Loretto v. Teleprompter Manhattan CATV Corp.,
    Held that any physical occupation is a taking, no matter how de minimis.
  165. Southern Burlington County NAACP v. Township of Mt. Laurel (II), 456 A.2d 390 (N.J. 1983)
    Created the model fair housing remedy for exclusionary zoning.
  166. Williamson County Regional Planning Commission v. Hamilton Bank
    Defined the ripeness doctrine for judicial review of takings claims. Taking claim premature where owner fails relief of variance and condmenation procedures.
  167. First English Evangelical Lutheran Church of Glendale v. Los Angeles County,
    Allowed damages (as opposed to invalidation) as a remedy for regulatory takings. Just compensation clause of Fifth Amendment requires compensation for temporary takings which occur as a result of regulations ultimately invalidated in court.
  168. Nollan v. California Coastal Commission,
    Created the "essential nexus" takings test for conditioning development approvals on dedications a nd exactions
  169. Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council,
    Compensation to be paid to landowners when regulations deprive them of all economically beneficial land use unless uses are disallowed by title or by state law background principles of private and public nuisances.
  170. Dolan v. City of Tigard,
    Extended Nollan's "essential nexus" test to require "rough proportionality" between development impact and conditions.
  171. Babbitt v. Sweet Home Chapter of Communities for a Great Oregon
    Secretary of Interior's definition of "harm" to endangered species (prohibited by Endangered Species Act of 1973) is valid when defined as "significant habitat modification or degradation where it actually kills or injures wildlife."
  172. Tahoe-Sierra Preservation Council, Inc. v. Tahoe Regional Planning Agency,
    Sanctioned the use of moratoria and reaffirmed the parcel-as-a-whole rule for takings review
  173. Charles Limblom wrote
    "The Science of Muddling Through", which established the incremental planning theory
  174. The Federal Property Administration Act of 1949 was developed to
    Dispose of federal property
  175. Nectow v. City of Cambridge?
    In this case the plantiff was placed in the R-3 zoning district in error. The plantiff sued under the 14th amendment claiming a violation of due process.
  176. Mediation
    is a method in which a neutral third party facilitates discussion in a structured multi-stage process to help parties reach a satisfactory agreement. Effective with individuals
  177. Consensus Buildng
    effective with many groups ivolving multiple, complex issues.
  178. Delphi method
    is a structured process of public participation with the intent of coming to a consensus decision. Panel completes hypotheses questionaires. Answers presented anonymously. Panel to revise answers based on what was heard. Eventually the answers converge.
  179. IRA
    Indian Reorganization Act
  180. What is an analysis of the relationship between two or more variables called?
  181. The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) is responsible for coordinating which of the following federal programs?
    NEPA, Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Farm Bill Conservation
  182. Progressive tax
    tax rate increases as the tax base increases
  183. Coupon rate
    The annual rate of interest paid on a bond that a borrower pays to the bond holder.
  184. UDAG
    Urban Development Action Grant: HUD program to help really poor cities for economic recovery. Facilitated public-private partnerships. Encouraged intergovernmental cooperation.
  185. Regressive tax
    Regressive taxes reduce the tax incidence of people with higher ability-to-pay, as they shift the incidence disproportionately to those with lower ability-to-pay.
  186. North American Industry Classification System
    The industry classification system that replaced the SIC system. The Census uses these numbers to crunch economic data.
  187. Plural Planning
    Multiple plans prepared by different groups in order to achieve the best result for all. Paul Davidoff. Associated with Advocacy Planning
  188. Zero Based Budgeting (ZBB)
    all expenditures must be justified as if it were a new program. Steps include: Analyzing, priority ranking and isolating decision packages
  189. Proportional tax
    Tax rate is fixed no matter the amount taxed.
  190. Visioning
    Typically, it consists of a series of meetings focused on long-range issues. Visioning results in a long-range plan. Priorities are set to distinguish essential goals. Performance standards allow an evaluation of progress toward goals over time.
  191. Shift-Share Analysis
    Evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of a region's industries, Evaluates the performance of specific industries, Evaluates the mix of industries
  192. Lowering a thermostat by 1 degree Fahrenheit can reduce a heating bill by what percent?
    Up to 3 percent
  193. John Friedmann
    Friedmann's transactive planning emphasized that citizens and civic leaders, notplanners, had to be at the core of planning if plans were to be implemented.
  194. NOT an advantage of a mail survey
    High Response Rate
  195. New York Zoning Resolution
    Key concept granted appeal rights.
  196. Unemployment Rate Calculation
    d. Individuals unemployed divided by individuals 16 years of age and older in the labor force
  197. Joel Garreau
    wrote "Edge City" (1991)
  198. Water Quality Act adopted
  199. Number of federally recognized tribes
  200. Symptomatic Method to Estamate Current Population
    ex. building permit method
  201. Employment estimation by allocating projected employment expansion to smaller geographic areas
    Shift-share: a portion of the projected expansion to sub-regions or population centers based on the center's present share of the employment
  202. Henry Wright
    codesigner of Sunnyside Gardens, NY and Radburn, NJ
  203. What is Dillon's Rule?
    Local governments are not provided with authority absent an express delegation of power from the state.
  204. What is the probability of an event that is certain to happen?
  205. Designers of Radburn
    Henry Wright and Clarence Stein
  206. Urban cluster
    an area that has at least 2,500 people but less than 50,000
  207. What is the "push analysis"?
    A push analysis determines if the introduction of a new business will generate additional customers.
  208. Conservation zoning
    requires the clustering of homes while preserving open space
  209. Satisficing
    is a decision-making strategy which attempts to meet criteria for adequacy, rather than to identify an optimal solution
  210. Herbert Simon coined
  211. What year was the Americans with Disabilities Act passed
  212. NPDES
    National Polution Discharge Elimination System allows people to obtain a permit to discharge pollutants into water
  213. US Renter Poverty Level
    More than 25 percent
  214. Who is the author of the Regional Survey of New York and Its Environs?
    Clarence Perry
  215. A volume to capacity ratio of 1 indicates which of the following?
    Stop and go traffic
  216. Storm Sewers handle ____ year floods
  217. Base Map
    Shows essential features of an area.
  218. Herbert Simon coined
  219. Munn v. Illinois
    the decision focused on the question of whether or not a private company could be regulated in the public interest. The court's decision was that it could, if the private company could be seen as a utility operating in the public interest.
  220. Capital Improvemet Plan (CIP)
    a long-range plan, usually four to six years, which identifies capital projects and equipment purchases, provides a planning schedule and identifies options for financing the plan.
  221. Which is the most common technique used to resolve conflict?
    Feedback and Compromise to create a 'win-win'
  222. Herbert Simon
    Organizational Behavior - Decision Making
  223. EA - Environmental Assessment
    An environmental assessment is a concise public document that a Federal agency prepares under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) to provide sufficient evidence and analysis to determine whether a proposed agency action would require preparation
  224. Christopher Stone's 1972 book Should Trees Have Standing discussed
    Authority to file suit: the Sierra Club v. Morton, Secretary of the Interior (1972) case where the Sierra Club attempted to block the development of a ski resort in the Mineral King Valley in the Sequoia National Forest.
  225. The Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) was adopted in what year
  226. What did the Indian Reorganization Act provide for?
    Organization of Native Americans and adoption of constitutions.
  227. MBO
    . Management by Objectives (MBO) is a process of agreeing upon objectives within an organization so that management and employees buy in to the objectives and understand what they are
  228. a Metropolitan Statistical Area
    defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget for use by federal statistical agencies that are based on the concept of at least one urbanized area of 50,000 or more population, plus adjacent territory that has a high degree of social and economic
  229. Krumholz’s utilized what planning theory:
    advocacy planning. Krumholz work during the 1970s focused on thinking about the disadvantaged in the community first in every planning process
  230. Environmental Assessment does not include
    Scoping (an EIS does)
  231. Was Goldev v Ramapo heard by the USSC
  232. EIS Key Questions
    Purpose and Need, Affected Environment, Range of Alternatives, analysis of the environmental impacts
  233. Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corporation
    Rezone to multi-family. Sued over discrimination. USSC - no evidence of discrimination.
  234. TSM
    Transportation Systmes Management
  235. Ex ante evaluation
    refers to forward-looking assessment of the likely future effects of new policies of proposals
  236. Hybrid Center
    aka Lifestyle Center with big box retail attached.
  237. Power Center
    Belle Terra, HB: new format that brings classic features of lifestyle centers to big-box venues
  238. Lifestyle Center
    Upscale specialty stores, dining and entertainment in an outdoor setting
  239. Right to Farm Act
    Typically state initiated legislation to protect commercial farms from nuisance action.
  240. Tranportaion Systems Management
    an approach to congestion mitigation. Identify how you can better make use of existing infrastructure. Low-cost but effective.
  241. Edward Ullman
    Multiple Nuclei Model.
  242. Mediation
    Dispute resolution
  243. Ernest Burgess
    Concentric Zone Model
  244. Sector Model
    allows for an outward progression of growth along railroads, highways, and other transportation arteries
  245. Multiple Nuclei Model
    similar industries with common land-use and financial requirements are established near each other. greater movment due to increased car ownership. which allows for the specialization of regional centers.
  246. Facilitation
    Concensus building
  247. Walter Christaller
    Central place therory: size and distribution of towns. HEXAGONAL SHAPE.
  248. Concentric Zone Model
    The center was the CBD. transition zone of mixed residential and commercial uses. Low-class residential homes. Better Homes. Comuters Zone.
  249. Homer Hoyt's
    Sector Model
  250. Chauncy Harris
    Multiple Nuclie Model
  251. Metro Water District of So.Cal.
    est. 1927 to create the Colorado River Aqueduct
  252. Clean Air Act Year
  253. PSD
    Prevention of Significant Deterioration - projects shall not increase emissions above a PSD increment.
  254. Cross tabulation models
    used to estimate trip generation
  255. Gavity model
    A traffic deal to quantify trip generation relationships
  256. TIP
    Transportation Improvement Program: FHWA requires this of MPO's: lists all projects for which federal funds are anticipated, estimated costs and schedules
  257. Shift-Share Analysis
    analyzes a local economy in comparison with a larger economy.
  258. Multi-state planning is most commonly used for