Qtr 2 spinal neurology Exam II
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What process flags microbe for macrophage destruction?
What process does the macrophage use to engulf the a microbe?
How does the phagolysosome degrade the microbe?
- Catalase breaks hydrogen peroxide down
- Lysosomal acid hydrolases degrade dead microorganisms
What is caused by premature degranulation, faulty phagocytosis, presence of membranolytic substances, long term persistent leukocyte activation?
leukocyte-induced tissue injury
What disease is the presence of membranolytic substances found?
What are the two categories of chemical mediators?
Cell-derived and Plasma-derived
What are the types of cell-derived chemical mediators?
- preformed (histamine and mast)
- Synthesized as needed (prostaglandin)
What are the classifications of plasma derived chemical mediators?
- Coagulation Factors
What type of chemical mediator are vasoactive amines?
What chemical mediator is released by basophils, platelets (in response to injury) and mast cells?
What type of reaction does histamine cause?
- venular endothelia cell contraction
- Junctional widening
What type of chemical mediator is serotonin?
What are arachidonic acid metabolites (Eicosanoid)?
- Cell derived (synthesized)
- Prostagladins, thromboxane
What are the functions of prostagladins and thromboxane?
Vasodilation and prolong edema
What are the functions of leukotrines?
chemotaxins, vasoconstrictors, increase vascular permeability and bronchospasm
What is the main function of the clotting system and where is it derived?
Converts soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin clot
What is the main function of the kinin system?
Release of bradykinnins
What is the complement system activated by?
C1 or C3 (punch holes in membrane)
What is the function of PAF (platelet activating factor)
- vascular permeability
- leukocyte adhesion
What is the function of cytokines?
Tell other cells how to act
What is the function of nitric oxide? and where is it produced?
- vascular smooth muscle relaxation
- kills microbes in activated macrophages
- supresses platelet adhesion
What are the possible outcomes of acute inflammation?
- Complete resolution
- progression to chronic inflammation
What is the excessive build up of scar tissue called?
What is the common WBC called? and what are they activated by?
- Activated by: Tcells, endotoxins, other inflammatory processes
Where are T and B lymphocytes produced? And what is their function?
- T-Thymus:ID imminuglobin needed
- B-Bone marrow: Produce immunoglobin
What is a plasma cell derived from?
It is a B cell that differentiates due to immunoglobin production
Where are eosinophils found?
- Parasitic infection
- Allergy (immunoglobin E)
What is it called when t cell activated macrophages engulf indigestible foreign bodies and form clusters that resemble squamous cells? and what are two examples?
- Crohn's disease
What is the main function of lymph nodes?
Stop the spread of infection
What pattern of inflammation has a watery effusion and where is it mainly found?
- Upper airway infection
- GI mucus
What type of inflammation is seen in nemonia, bronchitis, adhesive pericarditis?
Fibrinous (Fiber accumulation)
What type of inflammation has the presence of puss?
What type of inflammation occurs via necrotic epithelial surface? (e.g. bed sores)
What are the acute phase reactions to inflammation?
- -skeletal muscle protein
What types of leukocytosis occurs in bacterial, parasitic and viral infections (respectively)?
- Bacterial- Neutrophilia
- parasitic- Eosinophilia
- virial- lymphocytosis
What is the suffix giving to benign tumors of the connective tissue?
oma (i.e. fibroma)
What suffix is given to malignant tumors of connective tissue?
What suffix is given to benign tumors of epithelial cells?
pappilloma (i.e. squamous cell pappilloma)
What is the suffix given to malignant tumors of epithelial cells?
What is mesothelloma?
malignant tumor of the plura
What is invasive meningloma?
malignant tumor of the brain coverings
What is adenoma?
benign tumor of epithelial lining of glands or ducts
What is the process of going from differentiated to undifferentiated?
What type of tumor grows by expansion?
What is the most common cancer found in men and women (respectively)?
What is the most common type of cancer to cause death?
What are the four main DNA damaging agents associated with cancer?
- Free Radicles
What are the four steps of invasion and metastasis of malignant tumors?
- 1. loosing of cell to cell contact
- 2. attachment to novel ECM components
- 3. Degradation of ECM
- 4. tumor migration
What are ten known carcinogens?
- 1. Arsenic: lung, skin, blood
- 2. Asbestosis: Lung, pleura, GIT
- 3. Benzene: Leukemia, hodgkin lymphoma
- 4. Beryllium: Lung
- 5. Cadmium: prostate
- 6. Chromium: Lung
- 7. Ethylene oxide: leukemia
- 8: Nickel: Nose, Lung
- 9. Radon: Lung
- Vinyl Chloride: Blood vessels, liver
What recognizes antigens on tumor surface?
CD8+ and CTLs
What is a progressive loss of body fat an lean body mass, accompanied by profound weakness, anorexia, and anemia, caused by release of cytokines by the tumor or host?
What is the Triple A effect?
athenia, anorexia, anemia
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