Psych for Finals

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Author:
chiroclown
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19699
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Psych for Finals
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2010-05-18 01:16:12
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Chapters 8, 9, 10, 11
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  1. Global Stress Management Prevention Programs
    • Designed to help people address a broad range of problems or provide them with general skills to deal with a range of stressors.
    • Often focused on a single favored technique
    • Rarely evaluated in terms of the extent to which follow through occurs or usefulness.
  2. Specific Prevention
    Motivate people to take preventative action to avoid exposure to dangerous stressors (AIDS or Cancer) or to prepare them to deal effectively with specific stressors they may encounter.
  3. Success over Stress
    • Taught to evaluate impact that specific stressors have on them and coping strategies
    • Directing them to consider alternative coping strategies.
  4. Crisis Intervention Hotline
    • Provides specific resources and information to help deal w/ stress-related problems.
    • Reactive
    • Emphasizes using one's own resources
    • Originally Suicide prevention
  5. Crisis
    Highly stressful events
  6. Major Intervention Principles
    • 1. Establish a relationship and maintain contact
    • 2. Identify and clarify the nature of the problem
    • 3. Evaluate suicide potential
    • 4. Assess the caller's inernal strengths and resources
    • 5. Create action plan and mobilize caller's response
  7. Preventative Stress Management:
    1) Distal Anticipatory Stress
    2) Proximal Anticipatory Stress
    • 1) Aimed at stressors we don't confront in near future
    • Usually attend most closely to matters of immediate concern
    • Use emotion-focused: rationalize, intellectualize, etc.
    • 2) Likely to confront in near future
    • People often 'ignore' or 'normalize' warning signs
    • Stress level just prior matches or exceeds during actual exposure
  8. Lowering Incidence of Potential Stressors
    Need to identify the attitudes and behaviors that promote the occurence of stressors and change those attitudes and behaviors.
  9. Preventing Exposure to Stressors
    • Minimize negative consequences if exposed to stressors
    • Persuasion and attitude change
    • People must be convinced that the preventative behavior is possible and there are benefits.
  10. 2 Factors to Persuade Behavior Change
    • 1) Communicator- believable, sincere, expert, trustworthy
    • 2) Communication- arouse fear
  11. Prevention Behavior
    Designed to preclude or to forestall exposure to a stressor
  12. Early Detection
    Detect a problem at its earliest stages so that negative consequences are minimized.
  13. Cognitive inefficiency/ Poor choices
    • In panic/ near panic
    • Stress levels are so high that individual is hyper vigilant--> focus on petty details
  14. Problem-focused coping in crisis
    Able to see and respond to warning signs
  15. Emotion-focused coping in crisis
    • Can lead to wishful thinking and inaction
    • Muscle relaxation, breathing, etc. helps in crisis
  16. Postvention
    • Dealing with stress engendered by harm or losses that have already been sustained.
    • Reactive
  17. Proximal Post-Stress Intervention
    • Most effective delivery is from kin or someone of a similar background/ experiences.
    • Agressive interventions centered on victim will be unproductive.
  18. Brief Behavioral Intervention Procedure (BBIP)
    • Designed to treat recent rape victims (1-2 days after)
    • 6-8 week treatment
    • Reestablish a stable emotional equilibrium after stress
    • 1) Have client relax, encourage to recall details
    • 2) Educate victim on how fears develop and are maintained
    • 3) Attempt to reduce guilt/ responsibility
    • 4) Teach emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies
  19. Concerns in Self-Management vs. Professional Help
    • Certain Conditions:
    • 1) extreme depression
    • 2) serious suicidal ideation
    • 3) substance abuse
    • d) diseases (i.e. heart trouble, asthma, ulcer, etc.)
  20. Systemic Desensitization
    • Exposure
    • Discuss perceived stress
    • Diminish actual stress response
  21. Variants of Desensitization
    • Stressor Exposure
    • Relaxation Techniques
    • Taught to connect relaxation with anxiety arousal
  22. Exposure Therapy
    • Active and Direct
    • Guided by professionals
  23. Foa & Kozak's Exposure Model
    • Must be exposed to stimuli that:
    • Focused on adults recently exposed to trauma
    • 1) Reactivate the fear memory
    • 2) Provide new information connected with stressor (i.e. expose to dogs, but don't let bite)
  24. InVivo Exposure
    Homework with hierarchy consisting of major situations that are avoided but that are realistically safe
  25. Levi's Memory Reactivation Approach
    • Therapist is less active
    • One memory leading to another until coherent traumatic event was evoked
    • Leads to improved emotional functioning and in physical symptoms
  26. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
    • Shapiro
    • The memory of a traumatice event can be diminished if rythmic side-to-side eye movements are generated while visualizing
    • Create vidual image of event
    • Follow therapist's finger w/ eyes laterally
    • Produces fundamental change in memory versus modifying reaction
    • Found to be minimally effective at best
  27. Disclosure
    • Healing effects of simply opening up
    • Painful in short-term
    • Talking more effective than writing
    • Means of reframing shame and guilt
    • Reconfront experiences and achieve some insight to distress
  28. Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT)
    • Calhoun and Resick
    • Developed for sexual assault with PTSD
    • Combination of Disclosure and Exposure
    • Exposure to traumatic memoris in a safe environment--> alters fear structures and enables habituation to feared stimulus
    • Write out in detail and recount to therapist frequently
  29. Short-term Dynamic Psychotherapy
    • Related to psychoanalysis
    • Removes 'blocks' to processing --> encourages encountering event to tolerable level over time until all aspects can be worked through
    • Used with PTSD
  30. Self Management Applications of Exposure
    How to expose to trauma with minimal therapist guidance
  31. Common Theme in Postvention
    Confrontation
  32. Accepted Medical or Nonmedical use of Drugs
    • Treatment or prevention of diagnosed disease or alleviation of physical or mental discomfort
    • Accepted recreational use is a function of your reference group and best determined by individual
  33. Drugs Associated w/ Increased Anxiety
    • Caffeine
    • Sympathomimetics
    • Beta-Adrenergic Stimulants
  34. Caffeine
    • Most widely used CNS stimulant
    • Can be found in cold remedies, diuretics, other stimulants
  35. Sympathomimetics
    • Stimulate the sympathetic NS
    • Cough/ cold meds, nasal sprays, eye drops, respitory drugs
  36. Model for Drug Use and Abuse
    • 1) Accepted medical or nonmedical use
    • 2) Drug Misuse
    • 3) Compulsive Abuse
    • 4) Addiction
  37. Drug Misuse
    Use of any drug (legal or illegal) for a medical or recreational purpose when other alternative are available, practical or warranted
  38. Compulsive Abuse
    • Use of a drug despite adverse social or media consequences
    • Developed an intense reliance on self-administered drugs
  39. Addiction
    • Overwhelming involvement in drug use and securing supply
    • Pervades the person's life and controls his or her behavior
  40. Benzodiazepines
    • Most frequently prescribed drugs in the the treatment of anxiety
    • Associated with rapid relief from subjective feelings of anxiety
    • Increased in Mid-70's--> medicalized many simple problems of daily living
    • Overprescribing was legitimized drug abuse
    • Produces substantial cognitive deficits--> amnesia, associated learning and retention impairment
    • Users develop a tolerance and then increase use
  41. Buspirone
    • Affects GABA neurotransmitter
    • Affects Seratonin
    • Users report feeling lethargic and slow cognitively and motorically
    • Not considered addictive
    • Takes 2-3 weeks to obtain maximized benefits
  42. Alcohol
    Disinhibition
  43. Marijuana
    • Mild-sedative hypnotic drug with clinical effects resembling alcohol and anti-anxiety drugs
    • Relaxation, relief from anxiety, mild euphoria
  44. Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blockers
    • Decrease sympathetic NS activity
    • Decrease cardiac output
  45. Anti-depressants
    Increase in norepinephrine and seratonin
  46. Agoraphobia
    • Avoidance or endurance with dread of situations from which escape might be difficult or help unavailable in the event of a panic attack
    • Benzodiazepines, trycyclic drugs, prozac
  47. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
    • Tricyclic--> anafranil
    • Prozac
    • Increase Seratonin
    • Moderate gains
    • Exposure therapy is most effective
  48. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
    • Medication is not treatment of first choice for GAD
    • Anxiety management and general coping skills treatment recommended
  49. Respiratory Disorders
    • Hyperventilation and Asthma
    • Anxiety can precipitate or is a consequence or both
  50. Cardiovascular Disorders
    Palpitations, chest pains, cardiac awareness
  51. Endocrine Disorders
    • Hyperthyroidism (i.e. Grave's Disease)
    • May increase release of adrenallin which causes anxiety-like symptoms
  52. Drug-related anxiety
    Anxiety and panic like sypmtoms from drug abuse
  53. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
    • Part of Department of Labor
    • Helped formalize occupational stress as a field of study
  54. Burnout
    As a result of on-the-job stress, individual is completely drained and exhausted and can no longer function efficiently.
  55. Brownout
    Only part way there...
  56. Rustout
    Result of boredom and low job challenge
  57. Title VII of 1964 Civil Rights Act
    'Eliminated' sexual harrassment in work place
  58. Role Ambiguity
    Lack of clarity about job's objectives and expectations of boss/ coworkers
  59. Role Conflict
    • Job demands clash
    • Job functions aren't consistent
    • Tasks are viewed as undesireable
  60. John Henryism
    • Tendency to cope actively w/ stressors and believe that one can controle stressors through hardwork and determination
    • Higher blood pressure
    • More prevelant in Black men and women than White
  61. Anticipatory Socialization
    • Kramer
    • Developed for student nurses to prepare them for stressors encountered in job.
  62. Critical Stress Debriefing (CISD)
    • Peer support
    • Personell drawn from emergency service organizations
    • Help in situation like work place death, trauma, etc.
  63. Crisis Intervention
    • Treatment procedures designed to help people adjust to highly stresful events
    • Usually of sudden onset
    • Strain coping capability
  64. Early detection behavior
    • Anticipatory coping behavior
    • Designed to detect early signs of a potentially stressful event
    • Minimize negative impact (i.e. self exams--> detect cancer)
  65. Flooding
    • Exposure approach
    • Emphasizes on presenting to the client sensory material representative of the trauma
    • Present stimuli that are symbolically relevant but not actually experienced
  66. Recovered Memories
    • Memoris of past sexual/ physical abuse 'recovered' from adult 'survivors'
    • Usually become aware after many years
    • Usually as a result of psychotherapy
  67. Self-Directed Desensitization
    • Systematic Desensitization where family/ friends of client tkae responzibility for implementation
    • Occurs after consulting with a professional
  68. Benzodiazepines
    • Commonly prescribed designed to reduce anxiety
    • Muscle relaxants and sleeping medications
  69. Beta-adrenergic receptor blockers
    • Class of drugs with dampening effect on teh cardiovascular system
    • Blocks beta-adrenergic receptors
    • Prescribed for high blood pressure and also anxiety
  70. Busiprone (BuSpar)
    • Relatively ne antianxiety drug
    • fewer side effects than benzodiazepines
    • Lethargy
    • Relief may take up to 2-3 weeks
  71. Self-Medication
    Term used when one manages anxiety with alcohol or other drugs w/out professional help
  72. Employee Assitance Programs
    Workplace-based programs that focus on promoting healthy lifestyles in employees and improving their stress management skills.
  73. Intrinsic job stressors
    • Factors that are part of basic job tasks or work environment that are percieved as stress full
    • i.e. Noise, social isolation
  74. Karoshi
    Overwork-related death

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