Biological categories of male and female. Features such as genes, chromosomes, hormones. Relatively stable, not easily changed.
Social categories of male and female. Psychological features and role attributes. More fluid: influenced by society, culture and time, and religion.
Social position accompanied by a set of norms or expectations
Expectations that accompany being male or female. Expect men to be strong, not show emotions (masculine). Expect women to be caring, emotionally expressive (feminine).
Behavior and roles considered appropriate for boys and men.
Ex: self-confidence, watching sports
Behavior and roles considered appropriate for girls and women. Ex: emotional, helpful to others
perception of self as psychologically male or female. Do you consider yourself masculine or feminine or both?
These concepts are based on society. so as society changes so does the role.
Process of Gender Typing
process by which sex-appropriate preferences, behaviors, skills are acquired
Sex-typed (or gender-typed)
individuals who adhere to gender roles that society has assigned to their sex.
males who act feminine and/or females who act masculine
individuals with both masculine and feminine qualities
individual who you are unable to determine their biological sex (ex: hermaphrodite)
Gender Roles attitudes
our views about how women and men should behave: traditional, egalitarian, transitional
gender role attitudes that fit society's expectations for how men and women should behave
belief that men and women should be similar in characteristics and behaviors
strive for equality, but some traditional attitudes remain
1. someone who believes men and women should be treated equally (Ex: legal, economical and social equal)
2. High regard for women
Status and Culture
In most cultures, men have higher status than women. Men have higher rates of literacy, greater access to medical care, higher earnings and leadership positions. Boy babies preferred, especially by men
rights that belong to dominant group. Great strides toward gender equality in Western world, but equality not yet achieved
The Sex Differences Debate
people vary in beliefs about whether sexes are fundamentally similar or different
believe sexes are basically the same. differences are small and due to context, not rooted in biology. would be "nurture" in nature vs. nurture debate.
believe there are fundamental differences, but no sex is "better" than the other. rooted in biology. would be "nature" in nature vs. nurture debate.
***Philosophical position affects how we interpret research findings***
Gender seen as dynamic, dependent on context and created by perceiver. Gender not a static attribute of individuals. Challenges validity of studying gender as an "objective" science. Emphasizes variability within each gender. Focuses on how social institutions (ex: schools), culture (ex: media, religion) and language contribute to gendered behavior.
Began in the 1800s. Common thread of women's movements around the world: Improve the position of women in society. Equal opportunities for women and men.
Some endorse feminism and are concerned about harmful aspects of men's traditional gender role. Ex: National Organization for Men Against Sexism (NOMAS).
Some against women's movement and seek a return to traditional gender roles. Ex: Promise Keepers, ManKind Project