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2013-01-31 20:59:57

the digestion in animals
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  1. Define Digestion
    breaking down large molecules into simpler, smaller chemical compounds to be able to use in cells
  2. 4 methods of digestion
    • mechanical
    • chemical
    • enzymatic
    • microbial
  3. What is mechanical digestion
    the physical breakdown of food to create more surface area
  4. what is chemical digestion
    chemical breakdown of food that uses acids
  5. what is enzymatic digestion
    catalyze the breakdown of food by using enzymes that the animal has produced on its own
  6. what is microbial digestion?
    a symbiosis process where microorganisms break down food
  7. the basic steps of digestion
    • Prehension
    • Mastication
    • Salivation
    • Deglutition
    • The Stomach
    • Small Intestine
    • Large Intestine
  8. What is prehension?
    • seizing and conveying of food
    • actually getting the food into the mouth
  9. What is Mastication?
    chewing the food
  10. What is salivation?
    secreting saliva to mix with the food stuffs
  11. Types of salivary glands:
    • parotid
    • submaxillary
    • sublingual
  12. What is the composition of saliva?
    • Water
    • mucin- slime layer to help protect cells
    • Electrolytes
    • Digestive Enzymes
  13. What are the functions of saliva?
    • lubrication
    • solvent
    • cleans oral cavity
    • serves as a buffer to even out pH level
    • Helps recycle nitrogen through urea
  14. What is deglutition?
  15. What is the cardiac sphincter?
    distal end of esophagus that keeps food content in the stomach
  16. What are the functions of the stomach?
    • storage
    • mechanical breakdown
    • chemical digestion
  17. What are the true stomachs in animals?
    • nonruminant-stomach
    • ruminant-abomasum
    • avian-proventriculus
  18. What are the regions of the gastric stomach?
    • Cardiac
    • Peptic (Fundic)
    • esophageal 
    • pyloric 
  19. What is the cardiac?
    region of the stomach that produces mucin to help protect stomach from being digested
  20. What does the fundic do?
    • body chief or peptic cells for pH levels
    • has parietal or oxyntic cells (HCl)
    • has mucous neck cells
  21. What does the esophageal do?
    • Nothing
    • area where food comes into stomach
  22. What does the pyloric do?
    raises the pH before particles leave stomach
  23. What are the three parts of the small intestine?
    • duodenum
    • jejunum
    • ileum
  24. What role does the small intestine play in digestion?
    secretion, digestion and absorption of almost all nutrients
  25. What role does the large intestine play in digestion?
    Mainly absorption of water and volatile fatty acids