Autonomic Nervous System

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Author:
randyfarr
ID:
197032
Filename:
Autonomic Nervous System
Updated:
2013-01-31 22:44:04
Tags:
autonomic system
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Description:
adrenergics/cholinergics
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  1. Two systems of the autonomic nervous system
    • 1) Sympathetic: fight/flight
    • (Adrenergic)

    • 2) Parasympathetic: rest/digest
    • (Cholinergic)
  2. Neurotransmitter of Sympathetic (Adrenergic) system
    norepinepherine
  3. 4 receptors of the sympathetic (Adrenergic)
    • Alpha1
    • Alpha2
    • Beta1
    • Beta2
  4. Alpha1 effects of adrenergics at receptors
    • 1) blood vessels: constrict/ ↑ BP ↑  heart contraction
    • 2) eye: pupil dilation
    • 3) bladder: relaxation
    • 4) prostate: contraction
  5. Alpha2 effects of adrenergics at receptors
    • 1) blood vessels: dilate/ ↓ BP/ ↓ norepi
    • 2) smooth muscle: ↓ GI tone/motility
  6. Beta1 effects of adrenergics at receptors
    • 1) heart: ↑ contraction/ ↑ HR
    • 2) kidney: ↑ renin/angiotensin/ ↑BP
  7. Beta2 effects of adrenergics at receptors
    • 1) smooth muscle: ↓ GI tone/motility
    • 2) lungs: bronchodilation
    • 3) uterus: relaxation
    • 4) liver: glycogenolysis ↑ blood sugar
  8. drugs that stimulate the sympathetic nervous system
    • adrenergics
    • adrenergic agonists
    • sympathomimetics (mimic sympathetic)
  9. 3 ways of Inactivation of neurotransmitters
    • 1) reuptake of neurotransmitter
    • 2) enzymatic transformation/degradation
    • 3) diffusion away from tansmitter
  10. 3 classifications of adrenergics/sympathomimetics
    • 1) direct-acting
    • 2) indirect-acting
    • 3) mixed-acting
  11. direct acting sympathomimetics
    • directly stimulate the adrenergic receptor            
    • (e.g., epinepherine or norepinepherine)
  12. indirect-acting sympathomimetics
    • stimulate the release of norepinepherine from terminal nerve endings
    • (e.g., amphetamine)
  13. mixed-acting sympathomimetics
    stimulates adrenergic receptor sites and stimulates the release of norepinepherine
  14. adrenergic drug:
    epinepherine
    • nonselective agonist
    • alpha1: ↑ BP
    • beta1: ↑ HR
    • beta2 : bronchodilation
  15. epinepherine uses
    allergic reaction, anaphylactic shock, asthma, cardiac arrest

    • contraindications: cardiac dysrhythmias
    • caution: hypertension
  16. epinepherine S/E
    N/V, tremors, agitation, HA dizziness

    Adverse: palpitations, tachycardia, dyspnea
  17. adrenergic drug:
    dopamine
    • alpha1: vasoconstiction/↑ BP
    • beta1: ↑ HR/
    • given IV drip: mcg/kg/min
    • vasopressor through picc
  18. adrenergic drug:
    norepinepherine
    • alpha1: vasoconstriction/↑ BP
    • beta1: ↑ HR/contraction
    • given IV only always on pump
    • septic shock, hypovalemic shock
  19. adrenergic drug:
    phenylephine
    • OTC spray for allergy
    • alpha agonist: ↑ BP
    • IV only
    • vasopressor through picc
  20. adrenergic drug:
    dobutamine
    • beta1 only: ↑ HR/contractility
    • cardiac pts to increase heart function
    • IV only
  21. adrenergic drug:
    pseudoephederine (Sudafed)
    • OTC cough,cold,allergy, nasal decongestant
    • don't give with BP meds
  22. adrenergic drug:
    terbutaline (Brethine)
    • beta2: relaxation of uterus
    • delay pre-term labor
  23. adrenergic drug:
    midadrine (ProAmatine)
    alpha stimulator ↑ BP
  24. adrenergic drug:
    albuterol (Proventil)
    • beta2: broncho-dilation
    • asthma
  25. nursing actions with adrenergic agonists
    • Assess VS, breath sounds, UOP
    • correct hypovolemia before giving
    • Lg IV so no extravasation
    • teach read labels of OTC meds
    • teach report palpitations, dizziness
    • teach rebound nasal congestion
    • teach overuse of asthma meds
  26. Adrenergic blockers:
    sympatholytics/anti-adrenergics
    • block effects of adrenergic neurotransmitter
    • cause vasodilation
  27. Alpha adrenergic blockers
    • doxazosin (Cardura): ↓ BP
    • terazosin (Hytrin): ↓ BP
    • tamsulosin (Flomax): bladder relaxation/ BPH
  28. atenolol (Tenormin)
    beta1 adrenergic blocker

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