what is the difference between neolithic and paleolithic?
neolithic is the study of something new and paleolithic is the study of something old.
the west always had a changing definiton.
true or false?
what are some of the requirements to be a civilization?
must have a government, written language, laws, teachings, religion, etc.
what is anthrops
the study of man
anthropology studies a few major things which include?
what is sociology?
the study of a society.
what is theology?
the study of a religion
what is philosophy?
the study of thought.
what is the west?
-the definition changes all of the time.
-it is more towards America and past Europe, from Mesopotamia western.
what is mesopotamia?
the land between the rivers, the fertile cresent
what is a civilization?
a group of people, organization, urbanization, social organization, written language, religion, and government
what is the book definition of civilization?
a human form of culture in which many people live and make technological andvances, live in towns and urban centers, and have a method of writting, also social growth and long distance trade.
what is culture?
cultivated behavior that is socially transmitted and behaviors that are not always natural or necessary, including religions, food we eat, customs, government, etc.
what was paleolithic life like and around what time period did it occur?
-it occured around 400,000 BCE- 11,000 BCE
-people usually lived in small groups of 30-40 people, very family organized, the men usually hunted and the women took care of the home.
what was neolithic life like and around what time frame did it occur?
- 11,000 BCE- 4,000 BCE
-it was a transition to settled life instead of traveling, and now people started to get more into crops and farming.
what changes occured in the neolithic period?
cities were very close and tightly packed together to keep everyone closer together and close to resources, pottery developed in this period, and the tigris and euphrates rivers played major roles in the lives of the people.
what was the agriculture and civilization of mesopotamia like?
they developed irrigation systems and city states. some had isolated cities that were known for warring, and the religious view was that of Enlil being god.
what factors did the inventions of writing and the early schools influence?
sumerians were the first to start writing and they developed tokens (drawings)
what was cuneiform?
early written language that developed from pictographs to ideographs and finally to phonetic signs.
the pictographs and ideographs were difficult to manage.
what were the early schools like?
young men primarily went to school, harsh discipline if not trying hard enough, and topics of study were difficult to understand.
what was mesopotamian thought and religion like?
mathmatics were developed, medicine became more advanced and formalized, and religion became more formalized, (arduk and Tiamet Duel gods)
what were the social and gender divisons of the sumerians?
there were four social classes that included nobels, warriors, commons, and slaves.
there was a patriarchy and a cosmic heiarchy where things were either more or less important and connected to gods
who was the god/king of egypt?
Pharaoh and he believed in polytheism
what did the hyksos bring to egypt?
they brought the practice of assimilation and it was during the bronze age.
when did the new kingdom begin and what empire was it under?
during the 18th Dynasty and it was under the Egyptian Empire.
who was Aton?
the sun God
what was the importance of the nile?
used for unification and trade.
what were some important facts about the assyrians?
they had a powerful army and reputation for cruelty, they conquered mesopotamia, syria,palestine, and Egypt, they had a well structured empire, and they fell and collapsed under a civil war.
what was important about the Neo-Babylonians
Their king was Nebuchadnezzar, they forced assimiliation upon those that they conquered, and the great city of babylon was built.
what brought the end of the egyptian empire?
the third intermediate period, rule, and assimilation of conquerors.
what is important about the rise of phonecia
the phonecians created the alphabet
what were key facts of the hebrew state?
they were uncertain of their origins, there is a biblical understanding where abraham is the founder, the israelites were often warring, often assimilated and adapted, and there were hebrew monarchies
why is the evoulution of Jewish tradition important?
there was a covenant made between God and Abraham and the israelites became his people, all hebrews believed in the one God who was loving and consistent, women had fewer rights.
what was the lives of the hebrews like?
they came from nomadic origins, they were very much tribal, and originally polytheistic, they had specific modes of worship, and a male priesthood.
what was the torah and talmed?
laws written which the hebrews were required to live, and can be found in the first few books of the OT
why were the assyrians so powerful?
they had a sophisticated military orginization, but in the end they had a swift downfall.
what were the neo babylonian empire known for?
the chaladeans and the ultimate failure
what is key when talking about the rise of the persian empire?
Cyrus the Great was the founder, it was later under rule of King Darius then Xerxes, and it had an efficient administration.
what was important about persian religion?
originally tied to nature, zoroastrianism founded by zoroaster (zorothustra)
what is key of persian art and culture?
it welcomed and respected religious beliefs wether old or new, it took assyrian art, and two centuries of peace stability and tolerance followed this culture.