Search and Rescue

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Author:
Followthru34
ID:
197040
Filename:
Search and Rescue
Updated:
2013-01-31 22:57:35
Tags:
Search Rescue
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Description:
SAR OIC REVIEW
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  1. What is the (SC)?
    The Coast Guard is designated

    SAR coordinator (SC)

    for the Maritime Area and the Air Force for the Inland Area. Coast Guard area commanders are designated SCs for each of the two maritime SAR regions and so are district commanders for their SAR regions. The SCs are the top level SAR managers. The SC is responsible for:

    Establishing, staffing, equipping, and managing the SAR system

    Establishing rescue coordination centers (RCCs)

    Providing or arranging for SAR facilities

    Coordinating SAR training

    • Developing SAR policies
    •  

    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  2. What is the (SMC)?
    The SMC is usually the district RCC or the Group (activity) operations center(OPCEN). The SMC has several duties and responsibilities:

    Obtain and evaluate all data on the emergency.

    Dispatch search and rescue units (SRUs) based on thisinformation.

    Develop search plans which include determining limits for thesearch area, selecting the search pattern, and designating the on-scene coordinator (OSC).

    Control the SAR communication network for the assignedmission.

    Monitor progress of the SAR mission and request additional SARresources as necessary.

    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  3. What is the (OSC)?
    The OSC Is designated by the SMC to coordinate the activities of allunits when two or more SRUs are on scene for the same incident. Thefirst unit on scene usually assumes OSC until the SMC directs that theperson be relieved. The OSC should be the most capable unit, consideringSAR training, communications capabilities, and the length of time that theunit can stay in the search area.. As the subordinate of the SMC, the OSChas several duties and responsibilities. These are:

    Inform the SMC through periodic situation reports (SITREPs)

    Coordinate the efforts of all SRUs on scene

    Implement the search action plan from the SMC

    Control all on-scene communications between those SRUs

    Monitor the endurance of all SRUs and call for replacement unitsas needed

    Provide initial briefings and search instructions to arriving SRUs

    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  4. What is the (SRU)?
    An SRU is a unit with trained personnel and provided with equipment forSAR operations. The SRU responsibilities include:

    Efficiently execute assigned SAR duties.

    Establish and maintain communications with the OSC or SMC, asappropriate, prior to arriving on scene and until released from thecase.

    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  5. What are the rules for reporting :(OSC), and single and multiple (SRU's)
    An SRU is a unit with trained personnel and provided with equipment forSAR operations. The SRU responsibilities include:

    Efficiently execute assigned SAR duties.

    Establish and maintain communications with the OSC or SMC, asappropriate, prior to arriving on scene and until released from thecase.

    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  6. What are the emergency phases of SAR?
    Three emergency phases have been established for classifying incidentsand to help in determining the actions to take. These are:

    Uncertainty Phase

    Alert Phase

    Distress Phase

    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  7. Define Uncertainty phase:
    An uncertainty phase exists when there is knowledge of a situation thatmay need to be monitored, or have more information gathered, but doesnot require dispatching resources. When there is doubt about the safety of an aircraft, ship, or other craft or persons on board, or it is overdue orfailed to make an expected position report, the situation should beinvestigated and information gathered. The key word is

    "doubt."

    Apreliminary communications search (PRECOM), is normally conductedduring the uncertainty phase. The PRECOM is conducted by contactingfacilities or agencies within a specific area to either locate the vessel ordetermine if the vessel has been seen.

    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  8. Define Alert Phase
    An alert phase is assigned when an aircraft, ship, or other craft orpersons on board are having difficulty and may need assistance, but arenot in immediate danger. Apprehension is usually associated with theAlert Phase, but there is no known threat requiring immediate action.SRUs may be dispatched to provide assistance if it is believed thatconditions might get worse. For overdue craft, the Alert Phase isconsidered when there is a continued lack of information about itsposition or condition. The key word is

    "apprehension."

    An extendedcommunications search (EXCOM) is normally conducted during the alertphase. The EXCOM consists of extensive and repeated attempts tocommunicate with the missing vessel. The SMC may direct SRUs toconduct an EXCOM, this usually means you must try to establish radiocontact with the vessel every four hours for a 24-hour period. Boat mayalso be deployed to check out any leads.

    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  9. Define Distress Phase:
    The distress phase when there is reasonable certainty that an aircraft,ship, or other craft or persons on board is in danger and requiresimmediate assistance. This includes a direct report of an emergency or thecontinued lack of knowledge about a vessel's progress or position. Thekey word is

    "danger."

    SRUs are normally dispatched when this phase isreached.


    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  10. What is a hoax?
    A hoax is a case where information is reported with the intent to deceive.

    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  11. Define False alarm:
    A false alarm is when someone or something reported to be in distress isconfirmed to be not in distress and not to be in need of assistance. In afalse alarm case, the reporting source either misjudged a situation oraccidentally activated a distress signal or beacon resulting in an erroneousrequest for help, but did not deliberately act to deceive.

    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  12. What is the course of action for a Non-Distress case?
    When specifically requested assistance, such as a commercial firm,marina, or friend is not available, a marine assistance request broadcast(MARB) may be broadcast. If a commercial provider is available and canbe on scene within a reasonable time (usually one hour or less) or an offerto assist is made by any of the resources listed in the previous paragraph,no further action by the Coast Guard, beyond monitoring the incident, willbe taken.

    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  13. What is the policy concerning the use of Coast Guard resources for Non-Distress response?
    Coast Guard resources normally do not provide immediate assistance in non-distress cases where there is alternative assistance available. The Coast Guard both supports efforts of private enterprise and encourages volunteerism in assisting mariners. Coast Guard resources will not unnecessarily interfere with private enterprise. A Coast Guard resource may assist in a non-distress situation when no higher priority missions exist and no other capable resource is reasonably available.

    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  14. What is the Coast Guards Salvage Policy?
    When commercial salvers are on scene performing salvage, Coast Guardunits may assist them if the salver requests, and the assistance is within theunit's capabilities. However, salvage operations shall be performed only at the discretion of the unit CO/OinC. When no commercial salvage facilities are on scene, Coast Guard units may engage in salvage, other thantowing, only when such limited salvage operations (e.g. ungrounding,pumping, damage control measures, etc.) can prevent a worseningsituation or complete loss of the vessel. Coast Guard units and personnelshall not unduly hazard themselves at any time by performing salvageoperations.

    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  15. Define Datum:
    The term "datum" refers to the most probable location of the distressedvessel, corrected for drift over a given period of time. Depending on theinformation available and its accuracy, datum may be:

    A point

    A line

    An area

    As the case develops, datum must be corrected to account for wind and current. Datum is established by the SMC or OSC.

    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  16. Define Leeway:
    Leeway is the movement of a search object through the water. Leeway iscaused by local winds blowing against the exposed surface of the vessel.

    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  17. Define Tidal current.
    Tidal current is caused by the rising and falling of tides

    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  18. Search areas may be described by many methods.  What are they?
    Corner point :In this method the latitude and longitude (or geographic features) of eachcorner of the search area are given.

    Trackline :The latitude and longitude of the departure point, turn points, anddestination point are given with a specific width along the track.

    Center point(circle) :The latitude and longitude of datum are given along with a radius around datum.

    Center point(rectangle) :The latitude and longitude of datum are given with the direction of major(longer) axis plus the length and width of the area.

    Landmark boundaries :Two or more landmarks are given as boundaries of the search area along a shoreline.

    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  19. Search pattern designation T?
    T= Trackline

    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  20. Search pattern designation C?
    C = Creeping line

    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  21. Search pattern designation P?
    P = Parallel

    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  22. Search pattern designation V?
    V = Sector


    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  23. Search pattern designation S?
    S = Square

    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  24. The second letter indicates the number of search units:
    S = Single-unit search

    M = Multiunit search

    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM
  25. The third letter indicates specialized SRU patterns or instructions:
    R = Return

    N = Non-return

    Chapter 15: Search and Rescue BSM

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