biol ch 4

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  1. one of the most common intestinal bacteria of warm-blooded animals, one harmfull type is O157:H7.
    Eschericha coli (E. coli)
  2. All cells have three things in common:
    A plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and DNA
  3. a cell's outermost membrane is called:
    A plasma membrane
  4. Semifluid substance composed of water, sugars, ions, and proteins enclosed by a cell's plasma membrane.
  5. Structure that carries out a specialized metobolic function inside a cell. they are suspended in the cytoplasm.
  6. Organelle with two membranes that holds a eukaryotic cell's DNA.
  7. A relationship in which the volume of an object increases with the cube of the diameter  and the surface area increases with the square. this is why cells are so small.
    Surface-to-volume ratio.
  8. Theory that all organisms consist of one or more cells, which are the basic unit of life; all cells come from division of pre-existing cells; and all cells pass hereditary material to offspring.
    cell theory
  9. What are the differences of the prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
    • Prokaryotes: have no nucleus, have 3 diffrent cell wall layers, have flagellum to move, pilus helps them stick. they are small and have circular DNA.
    • Eukaryotes: have a nucleus, a cell wall made from a lipid bylayer, organelles, larger, and a chromosomal DNA structure. 
  10. Why are cells so small?
    because of surface-to-volume ratio. if a cell increases its diameter its volume increases faster than the surface area.
  11. What are the 4 statements of cell theory?
    • 1. every living organism consists of one or more cells.
    • 2. a cell is the structural and functional unit of all organisms, it is the smallest unit of life, and each cell is individually alive even when it is part of a multicelled organism.
    • 3. All living cells arise by division of preexisting cells.
    • 4. Cells contain hereditary material that they pass on to their offspring during division. 
  12. Microscope types and how they each work.
    • Phase-contrast light microscopes: yield high-contrast images of transparent specimens.
    • Reflected light microscopes: capture light reflected from the surface of specimens.
    • Fluorescence microscope: shows fluorescent light emitted by chlorophyll molecules in the cells. 
    • Transmission electron micrographs: reveal fantastically detailed images of internal structures.
    • Scanning electron micrographs: show surface details.
  13. An Organelle of protein synthesis. composed of RNA and proteins.
  14. Small circle of DNA in some bacteria and archaea.
  15. Region of cytoplasm where DNA is concentrated inside a bacterium or archaea.
  16. Semirigid but permeable structure  that surrounds the plasma membrane of some cells.
    cell wall
  17. long slender cellular structure used for mobility.
  18. protein filament that projects from the surface of some bacteria and archaea
    pilus (pili)
  19. community of microorganisms living within a shared mass of slime.
  20. What are the features of a prokaryotic cell and describe each component.
    • the capsule: it is the outermost mart of the cell and it is sticky to help adhear to things.
    • the cell wall: which surrounds the plasma membrane.
    • Plasma membrane: controlles what goes in and out of the cell.
    • cytoplasm: a gel like substance that holds the ribosomes and DNA in place.
    • Flagellum: a long tail like thing that helps mobility.
    • Pilus: short little legs that help grab to things and with mobility.
  21. What are the differences between archaea and bacteria?
    differ in structure and metabolism
  22. nucleus
    protecting, controlling access to DNA (organelle with membranes)
  23. Endoplasmic reticulm (ER)
    • Routing, modifying new polypeptide chains; synthesizing lipids.(organelle with membranes)
    • Organelle that is a continuous system of sacs and tubes; extention of the nuclear envelope. Smooth ER makes lipids and breaks down carbohydrates and fatty acids; rough ER modifies polypeptides made by rybosomes on its surface,
  24. Golgi body
    • Modifying new polypeptide chains; storing, shipping proteins and lipids(organelle with membranes)
    • and sorts and packages the finished product into vesicles.
  25. Vesicles
    • Transporting, storing, or digesting substances in a cell.(organelle with membranes)
    • Small, membrane-enclosed, sacklike organelle; different kinds store, transport, or degrade their content
  26. Mitochondrion
    making ATP by glucose breakdown(organelle with membranes)
  27. Chloroplast
    Photosynthesis in plants, some protists(organelle with membranes)
  28. Lysosome
    • intracellular digestion(organelle with membranes)
    • Enzyme-filled vesicle that functions in intercellular digestion.
  29. peroxisome
    • inactivating taxons (organelle with membranes)
    • Enzyme-filled vesicle that breaks down amino acids, fatty acids, and toxic materials.
  30. Vacuole
    • storage(organelle with membranes)
    • A fluid-filled organelle that isolates or deposes of waste, debris, or toxic materials.
  31. Ribosomes
    Assembiling polypeptide chains(organelle without membranes)
  32. centriole 
    anchor for cytoskeleton(organelle without membranes)
  33. cytoskeleton
    contributes to cell shape, internal organization, movement
  34. What sets apart the eukaryotic cells from the prokaryotic cell and what is similar?
    • they have a nucleus, they have a lipid bylayer, organelles, and a chromosome DNA structure.
    • they both have rybosomes, DNA,cytoplasm, metabolism  and membranes
  35. What are the differences between an animal cell and a plant cell?
    • animal cells: have Centrioles, their plasma membrane is on the outside of the cell,the nucleus is in the center of the cell,
    • plant cells: plasmodesma, a cell wall, chloroplast, and central vacuole, and lysosme-like vesicles, their nucleus is not in the center of the cell.
  36. Nuclear envelope
    • •Two lipid bilayers pressed together as a
    • single membrane surrounding the nucleus
    • •Outer bilayer is continuous with the ER
    • •Nuclear pores allow certain substances to
    • pass through the membrane
  37. Nucleolus
    •A dense region in the nucleus where subunits of ribosomes are assembled from proteins and RNA
  38. Nucleoplasm
    •Viscous fluid inside the nuclear envelope, similar to cytoplasm
  39. Chromosome
    • •A single DNA molecule with its attached
    • proteins
    • •During cell division, chromosomes
    • condense and become visible in micrographs
    • •Human body cells have 46 chromosomes
  40. Chromatin
    •All DNA and its associated proteins in the nucleus
  41. A series of interacting organelles (endoplasmic reticulm, Golgi bodies,vesicles) between nucleus and plasma membrane; produces lipids and proteins.
    endomembrane system
  42. Central Vacuole
    Fluid-filled vesicle in many plant cells.
  43. Plastid
    Category of double-membraned organelle in plants and algal cells. Different types specialize in storage or photosynthesis; e.g., chloroplast, amyloplast.
  44. Cytoskeleton
    • •An interconnected system of many protein
    • filaments – some permanent, some temporary

    • •Parts of the cytoskeleton reinforce,
    • organize, and move cell structures, or even a whole cell
  45. Microtubules
    •Long, hollow cylinders made of tubulin

    • •Form dynamic scaffolding for cell
    • processes
  46. Microfilaments
    • •Consist mainly of the globular protein
    • actin
    • •Make up the cell cortex
  47. cell cortex
    Reinforcing mesh of cytoskeletal elements under a plasma membrane.
  48. Intermediate filaments
    Maintain cell and tissue structures
  49. Motor proteins
    • Accessory proteins that move molecules
    • through cells on tracks of microtubules and microfilaments
    • Energized by ATP
    • Ex. kinesins
  50. Eukaryotic flagella and cilia
    Whiplike structures formed from microtubules organized into 9 + 2 arrays
  51. centriole
      a barrel-shaped organelle from which Microtubules grow
  52. basal body
    An organelle that develops from a centriole
  53. Pseudopods or “false feet”
    • Temporary, irregular lobes formed by
    • amoebas and some other eukaryotic cells

    •  Bulge outward to move the cell or engulf
    • prey.

    •  Elongating microfilaments force the lobe
    • to advance in a steady direction

    •  Motor proteins attached to microfilaments
    • drag the plasma membrane along with them
  54. Extracellular matrix (ECM)
    • •A nonliving, complex mixture of fibrous
    • proteins and polysaccharides secreted by and surrounding cells

    • •Structure and function varies with the
    • type of tissue
  55. Primary cell wall
    A thin, pliable wall formed by secretion of cellulose into the coating around young plant cells
  56. Secondary cell wall
    •A strong wall composed of lignin, formed in some plant stems and roots after maturity
  57. lignin
    Material that stiffens cell walls of vascular plants.
  58. Cuticle
    •Atype of ECM secreted by cells at a body surface

    • •Plantcuticles consist of waxes and proteins, and help plants retain water and fend
    • off insects

    •Cuticlesof crabs, spiders, and other arthropods is mainly chitin, a polysaccharide
  59. Cell junctions
    •allow cells to interact with each other and the environment
  60. plasmodesmata
    •In plants extend through cell walls to connect the cytoplasm of two cells
  61. Animals have three types of cell
    •  tight junctions
    • adhering junctions
    • gap junctions
  62. Properties of Living Things
    • 1.They make and use the organic
    • molecules of life

    2.They consist of one or more cells

    • 3.They engage in self-sustaining
    • biological processes such as metabolism and homeostasis

    • 4.They change over their lifetime,
    • for example by growing, maturing, and aging

    • 5.They use DNA as their hereditary
    • material

    • 6.They have the collective capacity
    • to change over successive generations… by adapting to environmental pressures
  63. What is the function of the smooth ER?
    It makes lipids, breakes down carbs and fats and detoxifies poisons.
  64. Rough ER  
    folds polypeptides in to their tetiary form.
  65. Descrribe the Endomembrane process. from RNA to Secreted protein product.
     DNA in the nucleus is transmitted to MRNA that then leaves the nucleus  through the nuclear pour, then get sent to the rough ER, then leaves the rough ER in a vesicle and goes to the golgi body, and leaves in a vesical to to plasma membrane to be sent out as a secreted protein.
  66. What are Mitochondria?
    AN Organelle that produces ATP by aerobic respiration in eukaryotes.
  67. What are Chloroplasts?
    Plasteds specilized for photosynthesis
  68. compair and contrast the two:
    • they both may have evolved by endosymbiosis.
    • they are both energy producing organelles. Midrcondria produces ATP and chloroplast is a part of photosynthys.
    • they both have two membranes. 
  69. What are three types of filaments and what are their functions.
    • Microtubule: Cytocetital element involved in cellular movement.
    • Microfilament: reinforces the Cytocelital element.
    • Intermediate filament:  a stable cytocetital element that maintains cell and tissue structure.
  70. How are the filiamints built?
    • the Microtubule is made of tubulin subunits that make up the fibers and it is hallow in the center.
    • the Microfilament is made of actin subunits that form a helix like structure
    • the intermediate filement that is made out of dimers and tetramiters and it forms like a rope.
  71. What is used as fuel for motor proteins?
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biol ch 4

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