Chapter 3 Part 1 Biology

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freddy562
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Chapter 3 Part 1 Biology
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2013-02-12 02:36:02
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What Life Biology 120 Jay Phelan Chapter
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  1. Eukaryotic cell
    has a central control structure called a nucleus, which contains the cell’s DNA. Organisms composed of eukaryotic cells are called eukaryotes.
  2. Prokaryotic cell
    • does not have a nucleus; its DNA simply resides in the cytoplasm. An organism consisting of a prokaryotic cell is called a prokaryote.
    • Each prokaryote has one or more circular loops or linear strands of DNA.
    • All prokaryotes are one-celled organisms and are invisible tothe naked eye
  3. Plasma membrane and Function
    • Plasma membranes are made up of two layers that are filled with a variety of pores, molecules, and channels
    • it holds contents of cell in place
    • it takes in food and nutrients
    • Aids in building and exporting molecules
    • Allows interactions with the environment and neighboring cells
  4. Cytoplasm
    is the jelly-like fluid that fills the inside of the cell.
  5. Cytoskeleton
    • Acts as the inner scaffolding of the cell
    • Provides shape and support
    • Controls intracellular traffic flow
    • Enables movement
  6. Microtubules
    • Protein fibers in the cytoskeleton
    • Thick, hollow tubes
    • The tracks to which molecules and organelles within the cell may attach and be moved along
  7. INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS
    • Protein fibers in the cytoskeleton
    • Durable, rope-like systems of numerous overlapping proteins
    • Give cells great strength
  8. MICROFILAMENTS
    • Protein fibers in the cytoskeleton
    • Long, solid rod-like fibers
    • Help with cell contraction and cell division
  9. Mitochondria
    • Act as all-purpose energy converters
    • Harvest energy to be used for cellular functions
  10. Lysosomes
    • Act as floating garbage disposals for cells,digesting and recycling cellular waste products and consumed material
  11. ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM
    • Produces and modifies molecules to be exported to other parts of the organism
    • Breaks down toxic chemicals and cellular by-products
  12. ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
    • Modifies proteins that will be shipped to other locations in the endomembrane system, the cell surface, or outside the cell
    • Rough ER is covered in ribosomes. Ribosomes are protein-making machines.
  13. SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

    • Synthesizes lipids such as fatty acids,phospholipids, and steroids
    • Detoxifies molecules such as alcohol,drugs, and metabolic waste products
    • Smooth ER is called “smooth”because it has no ribosomeson its surface.
  14. GOLGI APPARATUS
    • Processes and packages proteins, lipids,and other molecules for export to other locations in or outside of the cell Transport
  15. THE ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM AT WORK
    • 1)Transport vesicle buds from the smooth or rough ER.
    • 2)Transport vesicle fuses with Golgi apparatus, dumping contents inside.
    • 3)Golgi apparatus modifies the molecules as they move through its successive chambers.
    • 4)Modified molecules bud off from the Golgi apparatus as a transport vesicle.
    • 5)Vesicle may fuse with the plasma membrane, dumping contents outside the cell for delivery elsewhere in the organism.
  16. PLANT CELL WALL
    • Provides the cell with structural strength
    • Gives the cell increased water resistance
    • Provides some protection from insects and other animals that might eat plant parts
  17. VACUOLE
    • Stores nutrients
    • Retains and degrades waste products
    • Accumulates poisonous materials
    • Contains pigments,enabling plants to attract birds and insects that help the plant reproduce
    • Provides physical support
  18. CHLOROPLAST
    • Site of photosynthesis—the conversion of light energy into chemical energy
  19. RECEPTOR PROTEINS
    are surface or transmembrane proteins that bind to chemicals in the cell’s external environment and, by doing so, regulate certain processes within the cell. Cells in the heart, for example, have receptor proteins that bind to adrenaline, a chemical released into the bloodstream in times of extreme stress or fright.
  20. HYDROPHILIC HEAD(POLAR)
    • Attracted to water
    • Composed of a glycerol linked to a phosphorus-containing molecule
  21. HYDROPHOBIC TAILS(NON-POLAR)
    • Not attracted to water
    • Composed of carbon-hydrogen chains
  22. Ribosomes
    are little granular bodies where proteins are made; thousands of them are scattered throughout the cytoplasm.
  23. Flagellum
    • a long thin whip-like projection that rotates like a propeller and moves the cell
    • through the medium in which it lives.

    • (PURPLE)
  24. PILI
    Hair-like projections that help cells attach to other surfaces and sometimes play a role in DNA transfer
  25. Nucleus
    • a membrane-enclose structure that contains linear strands of DNA.
  26. Organelles
    specialized structures, usually contain in there cytoplasm, enclose separately within their own lipid membrane.
  27. Invagination
    best current theory about the origin of other organelles in eukaryotes.
  28. Phospholipid
    special type of lipid which have what appear to be a head and two long tails.

  29. Phospholipid bilayer
    the structure of the plasma membrane
  30. Trans-membrane protein
    • penetrate right through the lipid bilayer, from one side to the other
  31. Surface protein
    • reside primarily on the inner or outer surface of the membrane.
  32. Receptor protein
    • are surface or trans-membrane proteins that bind to chemicals in the cell’s external environment and, by doing so, regulate certain processes within the cell.
  33. Recognition proteins
    • are surface or trans-membrane proteins that give each cell a “fingerprint” that make it possible for the body’s immune system to distinguish the cells that belong inside your body from those that are invaders and need to be attacked
  34. Transport proteins
    • are surface or trans-membrane proteins that help polar or charge substance pass through the plasma membrane.
  35. Enzymatic proteins
    • are surface or trans-membrane proteins (enzymes) that accelerate chemical reaction on the plasma membrane’s surface.
  36. Cholesterol
    • a lipid that the plasma membrane can also contain to help it maintain flexibility.
  37. CELL THEORY
    • All organisms consists of one or more cells
    • Each new cell arises from division of another, preexisting cell
    • A cell is the smallest unit with the properties of life
    • Each cell passes its hereditary material to its offspring
  38. FLUID MOSIAC MODEL
    Basically the plasma membrane is a fluid.
  39. The Selectively Permeable Nature
    of Cell Membranes
    Gases (such as oxygen and carbon dioxide), small non-polar molecules, and water cross a bi-layer freely

    Other solutes (molecules and ions) cannot cross a lipid bi-layer on their own.
  40. Concentration
    The number of molecules (or ions) of substance per unit volume of fluid
  41. Concentration gradient
    The difference in concentration between two adjacent regions

    Molecules move from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration
  42. Diffusion
    The net movement of molecules down a concentration gradient

    Moves substances into, through, and out of cells

    a passive transport in which a particle, called a solute, is dissolved in a gas or liquid (a solvent) and moves from an area of high solute concentration to an area of lower concentration.

  43. Passive transport
    • the movement of molecules occurs spontaneously and without the use of energy
  44. Active transport
    • molecules that don’t move spontaneously and their transport require energy.
  45. Endocytosis
    • to absorb large particles such as bacterial invades;cells engulf them with their plasma membrane.
  46. exocytosis
    • Cells that manufacture molecules (such as digestiveenzymes) for use elsewhere in the body must get those molecules out of the cell
  47. phagocytosis
    • The process by which relatively large particles are engulfed by cells
  48. Pinocytosis
    describes the process of cells taking in dissolve particles and liquid.

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