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Fern Hill (p. 909)
By: Dylan Thomas
Theme: Childhood and growing up
Lines: "Time held me green and dying / Though I sang in my chains like the sea." Now as I was young and easy under..."
In Memory of W.B. Yeats (p. 219)
By: W. H. Auden
Theme: Death as depressing. Death for all of us. Death--remember the man.
Lines: "He disappeared in the dead of winter:" "... for him it was the last afternoon as himself." "Earth, receive and honoured guest:"
Traveling through the Dark (p. 1262)
By: William Stafford
Theme: Finds pregnant dear on edge of the road. Rolls it over edge.
Lines: "My fingers touching her side brought me to reason--" "My only swerving--" "...to swerve might make more dead."
On Angels (p. 949)
By: Czeslaw Milosz (translated also)
Theme: He believes in angels
Lines: "Day draw near / another one / do what you can." "for humans invented themselves as well."
The Song of Wandering Aengus (p. 1598)
By: William Butler Yeats
Theme: Magical. Makes wand. Drops berry--catches trout. Turns into girl. He swears to find her.
Lines: "Because a fire was in my head," "The silver apples of the moon, / The golden apples of the sun."
The River-Merchant's Wife: A Letter (p. 1547)
By: Ezra Pound
Theme: Love letter from arranged marriage. Played together. Grew to love. The earth misses you. I will come out to meet you.
Lines: "...I will come out to meet you as far as..." "You dragged your feet when you went out." "While my hair was still cut straight across my forehead."
"Wild Nights--Wild Nights!" (p. 1066)
By: Emily Dickinson
Theme: The ship has come to port. Let's have a wild night.
Lines "Rowing in Eden--... / Might I but moor--Tonight-- / In Thee!" "Futile--the Winds-- / to a Heart in port--"
"All in green went my love riding" (p. 1075)
By: E.E. Cummings
Theme: His love rode down the mountain. Deer, hounds, etc. ran down too. His heart fell dead before.
Lines: "four lean hounds crouched low and smiling" "on a great horse of gold / into the silver dawn."
Spring and Fall: To a Young Child (p. 1535)
By: Gerard Manley Hopkins
Theme: Mourning. Growing??
Lines: "It is the blight man was born for, It is Margaret you mourn for." "Ah! As the heart grows older / I will come to such sights colder."
The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock (p. 581)
By: T.S. Eliot
Theme: rambling... long
Lines: "In the room the women come and go / Talking of Michelangelo." "Rubbing its back on the windowpanes."
Note: the Italian beginning is from Dantes..."no one ever returns from the burning abyss...I can answer you."
Home Burial (p. 348)
By: Robert Frost
Theme: child dies, argument between husband and wife both mourning.
Birches (p. 666)
By: Robert Frost
Theme: Boys swing on birch trees.
Lines: "One could do worse than be a swinger of birches." "Earth's the right place for love:"
By: Robert Frost
Theme: walking through the snow. Sees a bird. Sees an abandoned woodpile. Wonders how someone could forget their work.
Lines: "Someone who lived in turning to fresh tasks / Could so forget..."
WHO will go drive with Fergus now (web)
By: W.B. Yeats
WHO will go drive with Fergus now,
And pierce the deep wood's woven shade,
And dance upon the level shore?
Young man, lift up your russet brow,
And lift your tender eyelids, maid,
And brood on hopes and fear no more.
And no more turn aside and brood
Upon love's bitter mystery;
For Fergus rules the brazen cars,
And rules the shadows of the wood,
And the white breast of the dim sea
And all dishevelled wandering stars
By: Naomi Shahib Nye
Theme: Everything is famous to that which is familiar with it.
Lines: "The river is famous to fish." "I want to be famous like the button hole... / it never forgot what it could do."
- Assonance – The same vowel sound in words with different
- consonant endings, not to be confused with rhyme (“like/kind” is an
- example of assonance; “like/bike” is pure rhyme).
Enjambment- Lines of poetry whose grammatical or rhythmical sense spills over from one line to the next.
- Cacophony – This literally means “harsh sound.” Poets will often
- create cacophonous effects by using alliteration, or clustering heavy
- stresses together, or by writing with abrupt, awkward rhythms. This
- does not mean, of course, that any one of these elements, or even all of
- them in combination, will automatically produce cacophony. It should
- also be noted that even the most cacophonous sounds should be pleasing
- in the sense that they should contribute to
- making the poem a more perfectly realized work.
Images – The visual associations called up by a poet’s use of description.
Anapest- A metrical foot of two unaccented syllables followed by one accented syllable: “unabridged” (adjective: anapestic).
- Epic- A very long narrative poem that recounts and celebrates the
- accomplishments of a mythic hero, often involving supernatural or
- divine intervention.
- Euphony- The term euphony literally means “pleasing sound.”
- Although what is pleasing or not is to some degree a matter of taste,
- most listeners will agree about whether a series of sounds is musical or
- harsh. Poets will often use assonance, especially with long vowels, and
- alliteration, to create this sense of musicality. It’s important to note
- that a line or phrase may sound euphonious in itself without
- necessarily being pleasing or effective in the larger
- context of the poem.
- Simile- A figure of speech in which two things are explicitly
- compared by using “is” or “like”: “the darkness / of a shell folded like
- a pastry”
- Beat movement- A movement in American youth culture with its
- origins in the postwar 1950s, the Beats challenged social, political,
- and artistic conventions. Inspired by other art forms out of the
- of American culture (from jazz music to Buddhism), the Beat movement in
- literature drew from forms as diverse as haiku and Walt Whitman’s free
- verse. Key Beat poets included Gregory Corso, Allen Ginsberg, and
- Kenneth Rexroth.
Dactyl- A metrical foot of one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables: merrily, tenderly, happily (adjective: dactylic).
- Haiku- A three-line poem in which the lines have syllable counts
- of 5-7-5, respectively. The form was invented in Japan, but has since
- become popular in English and other European languages. Obviously,
- there is not much room for narrative or explanation in a Haiku; instead
- the form depends on carefully chosen details – like the spare brush
- strokes in a Japanese ink drawing – to suggest more than it can directly
Form- In poetry, the shape and arrangement of words, lines, and images that determines the genre of a poem.
Epistle- A poem in the form of a letter.
- Metaphor- From
- the Greek “to carry across,” a metaphor is a figure of speech that
- implies one thing but, by comparison, evokes another. When sir Thomas
- Wyatt describes
- “My galley charged with
- forgetfulness / Through sharp seas in winter nights doth pass / “Tween
- rock and rock. . . .” the imperiled ship (or galley) is a metaphor for
- the poet’s struggling faith.
Perfect rhyme- (not in glossary) – In my own words: as described in class both vowel and last consonant for an exact correspondence.
- Stanza- A rhyme
- that is a kind of “near miss” – words echo each other without exactly
- corresponding. Consonants might match, as in “sack/sick”’ this is consonance. When vowels match, as in “leap/weed,”
- the effect is called assonance.
- Persona- From the Greek word for “mask,” the persona of a poem is
- the “who” of the poem, the voice or character created by a poet and
- given either in explicit identity or an implicit point of view.