ANS 315 test two

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ANS 315 test two
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2013-02-05 17:15:07
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test 2
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  1. define insertion
    tendon attaches to distal bone of joint usually causes movement.
  2. Muscle inserts on the posterior tibia, what joint moves and how when this muscle contracts?
    stifle flexes
  3. what is a major function of muscle that inserts along the axial skeleton?
    stabilizing the vertebral column
  4. name three muscles that are a cross bridge between the axial and appendicular skeleton.
    trapeziums, Rhomboideus, serratus, deep pectoral, superficial pectoral
  5. name a muscle that will extend the hip.
    biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus
  6. name a muscle that will flex the shoulder.
    teres major, latissumus dorsi
  7. name a muscle that will flex the hock
    tensor faciae latae
  8. name a muscle that will extend the elbow
    triceps
  9. name a muscle that will adduct the humerous
    superficial pectoral
  10. name a muscle that will extend the stifle
    tensor faciae latae
  11. describe the action of the ligamentum nuchae
    support head and neck
  12. describe the action of the triceps.
    extend the elbow
  13. describe the action of the gastrocnemius
    flex stifle
  14. describe the function of the trapezius
    adduct the scapula
  15. outline the general path of blood throughout the body start in the vena cava include valves
    vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary semilunar valve, pulmonary artery, pulmonary capillary, pulmonary vein, left atrium, bicuspid or mitral valve, aortic semilunar valve, aorta, major artery, target artery (renal or others), arteriole, capillary, (portal), capillary, venuole, target vein, major vein, trunk vein (vena cava), back to heart.
  16. why are arterioles called resistance vessels?
    the walls are elastic and are made of smooth muscle which helps to resist flow and sustain pressure.
  17. name the types of muscle that control respiration indicate the most important
    diaphram*, intercostal interior and exterior, and abdominal.
  18. what is the effect of contraction of the diaphram on:
    thoracic volume
    abdominal volume
    thoracic pressure
    movement of air
    • t v: increase
    • a V: decrease
    • t p: decrease (less than atmospheric)
    • movement: inhale air moves through bronchi to alveoli
  19. defend or refute. a paralyzed diaphragm would have no effect on the welfare of an animal because other muscles and the weight of the viscera would allow respiration to continue.
    REFUTE. the animal would suffocate as it would not be able to inhale the action of the diaphragm is vital to inhalation
  20. what are consequences of an animla having no troponin?
    the calcium in the animal would be unable to bond to tropomyosin which would continue to cover the myosin bonding sites on the actin, muscle would not contract.
  21. defend or refute. if two animals have the same number of sarcomeres they will have similar strength.
    REFUTE. the strength of an animal is dependent on the abundance of actin and myosin not the number of sarcomeres.
  22. describe event necessary for a skeletal muscle to relax.
    • the nervous signal must stop
    • the calcium must dissasociate from troponin binding cite the allow the tropomyosin to cover the hmm binnding cites on actin
  23. with 500 units of myosin filament describe the actin myosin cycle.
    the 500 myosin would not be sycronized, and the HMM would bind to actin and bend inward to shorten muscle, it would then dissociate which uses atp, and bend outward and then repeat this cycle.
  24. provide two structural features that allow all capillaries to conduct bidirectional exchange with tissue.
    • small lumen allows for intimacy with each eurethrocyte
    • thin wall allows for easy access in and out
  25. what is the relative probability that a erythrocyte leaves the left ventricle goes to the uterus and returns to the right atrium and is still oxygen rich? EXPLAIN.
    it is highly likely that this would happen as 10% of capillaries are patent average, so 90% are closed and not perfused, so the blood travels through a-v anastomoses then back to the heart
  26. name two to three features that distinguish between the types of capillaries.
    cellular interactions (junctions between endothelial cells), pores in the membrane, and presence or completeness of a basement membrane.
  27. name two features that regulate whether or not capillaries are patent or not. for each factor discuss the effect on patency of the capillary
    • metabolic activity/demand for nutrients: positive corralation
    • accumulation of metabolic waste: positive corralation
    • oxygen in blood: negative corralation
  28. within a capillary plexus what specific tissue is affected by the factors that regulate capillary patency
    the pre-capillary sphincters are smooth muscle not innervated no nerves and are controlled by local metabolic invironment
  29. name all forces that effect bulk flow and for each force dictate it filtration or re-absorption to indicate direction of flow
    • capillary blood pressure: filtration
    • interstitial pressure: filtration
    • interstitial colloid osmotic pressure: filtration
    • plasma colloid osmotic pressure: re-absorption
  30. at the distal end of capillaries why is there no filtration?
    blood pressure is lower, so re-absorption is greater than filtration
  31. what type of capillary is most likely to experience bulk flow? EXPLAIN.
    fenestrated capillaries, because they are the most permissive.
  32. a toxin loosens the junction between cells that line capillaries. explain the consequences to bulk flow
    there is in an increase in filtration because the capillaries are more permissive
  33. define edema
    extra interstitial fluid
  34. excluding high blood pressure discuss a possible cause of edema. explain with attention to factors that regulate bulk flow.
    • low blood protein: decreased plasma colloid osmotic pressure
    • blocked lymph vessel
    • inflammation of capillaries
  35. name the type of capillary that exists in the liver.
    discontinuous has sinusoidal gaps and has an incomplete basement membrane
  36. explain bulk flow for capillaries in the liver
    hepatic artery increases blood pressure so that filtration is an option
  37. Defend or Refute. regulation of skeletal muscle involves factors that actively encourage contraction.
    REFUTE. tropomyosin prevents actin myosin cycle the action is voluntary not actively regulated
  38. how do nerves communicate with muscles
    chemical message acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter
  39. for a relaxed muscle where is the calcium stored that is involved in contraction of that same muscle?
    sarcoplasmic reticulum
  40. within a skeletal muscle name the binding site for calcium.
    troponin
  41. name events in the muscle that require and consume energy.
    • dissociate HMM from actin
    • pump calcium from myofibril to S.R.
  42. which cardiac chamber has the largest volume? EXPLAIN.
    they all have equal volume
  43. name the tissue that is prominent in the walls of the cardiac chambers.
    myocardium and endothelium (endocardium)
  44. why is there a cardiac valve immediately after the left and right ventricle
    to prevent back flow and sustain one direction flow.
  45. what structure acts like the cords of a parachute and prevents inversion of the cusps of cardiac valves? EXPLAIN.
    chordae tendonae attached to free border of valves
  46. name and describe events during the two major phases of the cardiac cycle
    • systole: contraction and emptying
    • diastole: relax and fill
  47. for capillaries define bidirectional exchange.
    the bidirectional exchange is in capillary to tissue and from tissue to capillary, nutrients flow to tissue and waste products generally flow to capillary, exchange is not limited to elimination of waste.
  48. describe three structural features of a capillary plexus that allow for bidirectional exchange.
    • thin wall
    • small diameter lumen (cells pass through one at a time)
    • high density relative to cells
  49. where would continuous capillaries be found?
    adipose, lungs, placenta, CNS, and muscle
  50. where would discontinuous capillaries be found?
    liver, bone marrow, spleen, and mammary glands
  51. where would fenestrated capillaries be found?
    endocrine tissue, gall bladder, exocrine tissues, renal medulla, intestine, synovial membranes
  52. defend or refute. percent of pre-capillary sphincters that are patent in the lungs is greater than in many other tissues, explain.
    DEFEND. the high concentration of CO2 in the pulmonary artery blood would keep the sphincter patent.
  53. real or not, describe three situations that will increase filtration at a capillary.
    • decrease plasma colloid pressure
    • interstitial fluid pressure is more negative
    • increase interstitial colloid osmotic pressure
    • increase blood pressure
    • increase flow of lymph
  54. excluding increased blood pressure, provide at least one explanation for edema.
    • decreased protein in blood
    • blocked lymph vessel
    • inflammation leading to capillary porosity
  55. defend or refute. compared to restrictive capillaries,  permissive capillaries experience less bulk flow.
    REFUTE. permissive capillaries like fenestrated are very permissive (have pores and openings) and would allow for more blood flow.
  56. in skeletal muscles what is the basic cellular unit? Explain.
    muscle fibers, any thing smaller like a myofibril are organelles.
  57. in skeletal muscle what is the most fundamental contractile unit? Explain.
    Sarcomere- the boundries are the z-line, sarcomere has multiple sets of actin and myosin 6:1 ratio and when the sarcomere contracts the z-line is pulled inward to contract the muscle.
  58. contrast phasic and tonic muscle
    • structural:
    •    phasic: one neuron per whole muscle-twitch
    •    tonic: multiple neurons per muscle- non-twitch
    • Functional:
    •    phasic: Contraction discrete all or nothing
    •    tonic: contraction variable per cell
  59. describe the hepatic portal circulatory system. include organs and types of blood vessels.
    stomach/intestines: primary capillary plexus-portal vein-liver: secondary capillary plexus-vena cava-heart
  60. explain bulk flow in the hepatic capillary.
    hepatic artery joins with portal vein to increase arterial pressure and allow for filtration.
  61. what is filtration?
    movement from blood to tissue
  62. what is reabsorption?
    movement from tissue back to blood
  63. what type of tissue is prominent in walls of trunk arteries, explain.
    fibroelastic- resists increase of volume and resists decreased flow to sustain pressure.
  64. defend or refute. veins are considered resistance vessels because smooth muscle can contract and constrict flow of blood. explain.
    REFUTE. veins are capacitance vessels because they can handle large volume, arterioles are resistance vessels.
  65. after calcium is available and binds to receptor in muscle, what is the initial response within a basic contractile unit of the muscle?
    Ca receptor on troponin, the troponin shifts laterally to expose myosin sites on actin.
  66. what is the local source of calcium in muscles?
    sarcoplasmic reticulum
  67. a cow has clinical milk fever and cannot stand or walk. use 10 words or less to explain the situation.
    low calcium in the muscle
  68. in a lactating cow or hen laying eggs, name all possible sources of calcium for milk or egg shells.
    diet, blood, muscle, bone.
  69. name four extracellular or extramuscular events that eventually cause a contraction of the biceps femoris.
    • action potential in motor neuron
    • neurotransmitter (ACh) at pre-synaptic membrane
    • ACh crosses synapse
    • ACh binds to receptor at post synaptic membrane.
  70. defend or refute. in skeletal muscle the tendons have continuity with and are contiguous with myosin. explain.
    tendons attached to actin not myosin, tendon branches throughout muscle to create subunits, tendon ends at z-line, actin is attached to z-line.
  71. in a relaxed muscle describe affinity or attraction between HMM and actin
    inherent attraction between HMM and actin. tropomyosin covers HMM binding sites on actin and prevents start of actin myosin cycle.
  72. what is a function of a cardiac valve? use <10 words.
    prevent backflow of blood
  73. describe how a cardiac valve is secure in the heart.
    the base is anchored to myocardium, and the end of the cusp is attached to the chordae tendonae, so the valve is secured at two points.
  74. what is the name of the muscle int he heart that actually pumps blood?
    myocardium
  75. defend of refute. intravascular valves are powered with proximal skeletal muscles. explain.
    REFUTE. there is no power involved in a valve, it is a passive process dictated by pressure and flow.
  76. After death and now loss of blood, an animal is frozen instantly. you evaluate the cardiovascular system and the distribution of blood in many tissues. name four types of nucleated cells that will be present within all components of the cardio vascular system. each type of cell must be present in all components of the cardiovascular system that you evaluate.
    • monocyte
    • neutrophils
    • lymphocyte
    • platelets
    • endothelium
  77. After death and now loss of blood, an animal is frozen instantly. you
    evaluate the cardiovascular system and the distribution of blood in many
    tissues. Defend or Refute. the cells in all components would vary depending on examination of arterial, capillary, or venous level of the cardiovascular system. explain.
    REFUTE. it is the same at all levels of the cardiovascular system; including the heart.
  78. After death and now loss of blood, an animal is frozen instantly. you
    evaluate the cardiovascular system and the distribution of blood in many
    tissues. contrast arteries and veins. use relative terms, such as soft and hard or short and tall.
    • Pressure: artery-high  vein-low
    • direction of flow: artery:from heart  vein:toward heart
    • volume of blood/unit time (flow): same for arteries and veins, volume in must equal volume out.

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