Physio: Skeletal System

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Physio: Skeletal System
2013-02-11 22:10:46
Physio Skeletal System

Physio: Skeletal System
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  1. Epiphysis
    end of a long bone. Largely cancellous bone and is lines with 3-5 mm of articular cartilage. It's supplies by vessels from the joint capsule
  2. Diaphysis
    shaft or central part of a long bone. Marrow-filled cavity surrounded by compact bone.
  3. Periosteum
    fibrous, cellular, vascular and highly sensitive life support sheath for bone. Provides nutrients blood for bone cells. Does not cover articular cartilage
  4. Articular Cartilage 
    smooth, slippery, poroud, malleable, insensitive and bloodless. nourished by vessels from the subchondral bone. 
  5. Cancellous bone
    spongy bone consists of interwoven beams of bone in the epiphyses of long bones.  
  6. compact bone
    dense bone characterized in long bones. Forms stout walls of the diaphysis of long bones. e.g. flat bones of the skull. 
  7. medullary cavity
    cavity of the diaphysis. Contains marrow: red for young turning yellow as long bones mature. Lines by endosteal tissue. 
  8. where are the red marrows found in adults?
    sternum, vertebrea, ribs, hip bones, clavicles and cranial bones.
  9. axial skeleton has 4 parts which are...
    • 1. skull
    • 2. hyoid bone
    • 3. vertebral column 
    • 4.thoracic cage
  10. appendicular skeleton consists of 4 parts which are...
    • 1.pectoral girdle
    • 2. upper limbs
    • 3. pelvic girdle
    • 4. lower limbs.
  11. how many bones make up the cranium?
  12. what are the 8 cranial bones?
    • 1 frontal
    • 2 parietal
    • 1 occipital 
    • 2 temporal
    • 1 sphenoid 
    • 1 ethmoid
  13. Frontal Bone

    -forms the anterior portion around the eyes.

    -Includes the supraorbital foramen: blood vessels and nerves pass to the tissue of the forehead. 

    • and the frontal sinuses
  14. Parietal Bones

    • located on each side of the skull behind the frontal bone. 
    • Forms the bulging sides and roof of the cranium. 

    -fused at the midline along the agittal suture and meet the frontal bone along the coronal suture.
  15. Occipital bone

    • joins the parietal bone along the lambdoidal suture. 
    • forms the back skull.

    • Includes:
    • -foramen magnum on its lower surface and that passes nerve fibers from the brain which enter the vertebral canal.
  16. Temporal bones

    • joins the parietal bone along the squamosal suture.
    • forms parts of the sides and the base of the cranium. 
    • Includes:
    • -external auditory meatus (leads inward to parts of the ear.)
    • -mandibular fossae (depressions which articulate with condyles of the mandible.)
    • -mastoid process (provides an attachment for certain muscles of the neck) and a long pointed styloid process (anchors the muscles associated with the tongue and pharynx)
    • -zygomatic process and zygomatic bones (help form the prominence of the cheek bone)
  17. Sphenoid Bone
    • 2 wing like structures that extend laterally toward each side of the skull. 
    • Helps form the base of the cranium and the floors of sides of the orbits. 
    • Includes
    • -sella turcica where the pituitary gland
    • occupies this depression. 
    • -sphenoidal sinuses

  18. Ethmoid bone
    • located infront of the sphenoid bone.
    • Includes:
    • -crista galli (triangular process where membranes that enclose the brain attach to this process. 
    • -superior nasal concha and middle nasal concha (delicate scroll shapes plates)
    • -ethmoid sinues (small air spaces.)
  19. Cervical Vertebrae:
    1. how many?
    2. How does it differ?
    • 1. 7
    • 2. has transverse foramina 
    • 1st bone = atlas which supports the head.
    • 2nd bone = axis which lies in the ring of the atlas.
  20. Thoracic vertebrae 
    1. how many?
    2. differ?
    • 1. 12
    • 2. larger than cervical. Has a long pointed spinous process which slope downwards and has facets on the sides of its body which articulate the ribs
  21. Lumbar Vertebrae 
    1. how many?
    2. differ?
    • 1. 5
    • 2. larger and stronger bodies. has no facets 
  22. What does the thoracic cage include?
    -ribs, thoracic vertebrae, sternum and costal cartilage. 
  23. Ribs
    1. how many? what's what
    2. features?
    • 1. usual is twelve (first seven are the true ribs and the five pairs are false ribs.) Then there's  the last two  floating ribs.
    • 2. long, slender shaft which curves around the chest and sloped downward. 
  24. Sternum
    • flat elongated bone which has three parts:
    • 1. upper manubrium
    • 2.body
    • 3. xiphoid process
  25. Pectoral Girdle
    1. composed of?
    four parts: two clavicles and two scapulae 
  26. Clavicles 
    • a.k.a collarbones
    • slender, rodlike bones. 
    • Braces the freely movable scapulae helping to hold the shoulders in place. 
  27. Scapulae
    • a.k.a. shoulder blades are broad, triangular bones. 
    • acromion process forms the tip of the shoulder and a coracoid process which curves anteriorly and inferiorly to the clavicle. 
  28. Upper limbs 
    consists of?
    humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals and phalanges 
  29. Humerus 

    • -upper end is a smooth rounded head
    • -has a twisty like end
  30. Radius
  31. Ulna
  32. How many carpal bones does the hand have?
  33. what forms the pelvis?
    the sacrum, coccyx and pelvic girdle 
  34. what's the function of the pelvic girdle?
    supports the trunk of the body, provides attachments for the lower limbs and protects the urinary bladder, distal ends of the large intestines and the internal reproductive organs
  35. Ilium , ischium and pubis. Picture it
  36. What does the lower limbs consist of?
    femur, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals and phalanges
  37. Fibrous joint
    • those in which the bones are connected by fibrous tissue. 
    • examples: 
    • -sutures of the skull. 
    • -teeth in their sockets
    • -ligaments between bones of the forearm or the bones of the leg
  38. Cartilaginous joint
    • immovable joins seen during growth.
    • examples:
    • -the intervertebral disc.
    • -between pubis bone
    • -manubrium and the body of the sternum.
  39. Synovial joints.
    What are the types? (6)
    • freely movable. 
    • -Ball and socket (shoulder) 
    • -hinge (arm)
    • -saddle (thumb)
    • -ellipsoid (wrist)
    • -pivot (neck)
    • -gliding (shoulder)