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end of a long bone. Largely cancellous bone and is lines with 3-5 mm of articular cartilage. It's supplies by vessels from the joint capsule
shaft or central part of a long bone. Marrow-filled cavity surrounded by compact bone.
fibrous, cellular, vascular and highly sensitive life support sheath for bone. Provides nutrients blood for bone cells. Does not cover articular cartilage
smooth, slippery, poroud, malleable, insensitive and bloodless. nourished by vessels from the subchondral bone.
spongy bone consists of interwoven beams of bone in the epiphyses of long bones.
dense bone characterized in long bones. Forms stout walls of the diaphysis of long bones. e.g. flat bones of the skull.
cavity of the diaphysis. Contains marrow: red for young turning yellow as long bones mature. Lines by endosteal tissue.
where are the red marrows found in adults?
sternum, vertebrea, ribs, hip bones, clavicles and cranial bones.
axial skeleton has 4 parts which are...
- 1. skull
- 2. hyoid bone
- 3. vertebral column
- 4.thoracic cage
appendicular skeleton consists of 4 parts which are...
- 1.pectoral girdle
- 2. upper limbs
- 3. pelvic girdle
- 4. lower limbs.
how many bones make up the cranium?
what are the 8 cranial bones?
- 1 frontal
- 2 parietal
- 1 occipital
- 2 temporal
- 1 sphenoid
- 1 ethmoid
-forms the anterior portion around the eyes.
-Includes the supraorbital foramen: blood vessels and nerves pass to the tissue of the forehead.
- and the frontal sinuses
- located on each side of the skull behind the frontal bone.
- Forms the bulging sides and roof of the cranium.
-fused at the midline along the agittal suture and meet the frontal bone along the coronal suture.
- joins the parietal bone along the lambdoidal suture.
- forms the back skull.
- -foramen magnum on its lower surface and that passes nerve fibers from the brain which enter the vertebral canal.
- joins the parietal bone along the squamosal suture.
- forms parts of the sides and the base of the cranium.
- -external auditory meatus (leads inward to parts of the ear.)
- -mandibular fossae (depressions which articulate with condyles of the mandible.)
- -mastoid process (provides an attachment for certain muscles of the neck) and a long pointed styloid process (anchors the muscles associated with the tongue and pharynx)
- -zygomatic process and zygomatic bones (help form the prominence of the cheek bone)
- 2 wing like structures that extend laterally toward each side of the skull.
- Helps form the base of the cranium and the floors of sides of the orbits.
- -sella turcica where the pituitary gland
- occupies this depression.
- -sphenoidal sinuses
- located infront of the sphenoid bone.
- -crista galli (triangular process where membranes that enclose the brain attach to this process.
- -superior nasal concha and middle nasal concha (delicate scroll shapes plates)
- -ethmoid sinues (small air spaces.)
1. how many?
2. How does it differ?
- 1. 7
- 2. has transverse foramina
- 1st bone = atlas which supports the head.
- 2nd bone = axis which lies in the ring of the atlas.
1. how many?
- 1. 12
- 2. larger than cervical. Has a long pointed spinous process which slope downwards and has facets on the sides of its body which articulate the ribs
1. how many?
- 1. 5
- 2. larger and stronger bodies. has no facets
What does the thoracic cage include?
-ribs, thoracic vertebrae, sternum and costal cartilage.
1. how many? what's what
- 1. usual is twelve (first seven are the true ribs and the five pairs are false ribs.) Then there's the last two floating ribs.
- 2. long, slender shaft which curves around the chest and sloped downward.
- flat elongated bone which has three parts:
- 1. upper manubrium
- 3. xiphoid process
1. composed of?
four parts: two clavicles and two scapulae
- a.k.a collarbones
- slender, rodlike bones.
- Braces the freely movable scapulae helping to hold the shoulders in place.
- a.k.a. shoulder blades are broad, triangular bones.
- acromion process forms the tip of the shoulder and a coracoid process which curves anteriorly and inferiorly to the clavicle.
humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals and phalanges
- -upper end is a smooth rounded head
- -has a twisty like end
How many carpal bones does the hand have?
what forms the pelvis?
the sacrum, coccyx and pelvic girdle
what's the function of the pelvic girdle?
supports the trunk of the body, provides attachments for the lower limbs and protects the urinary bladder, distal ends of the large intestines and the internal reproductive organs
Ilium , ischium and pubis. Picture it
What does the lower limbs consist of?
femur, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals and phalanges
- those in which the bones are connected by fibrous tissue.
- -sutures of the skull.
- -teeth in their sockets
- -ligaments between bones of the forearm or the bones of the leg
- immovable joins seen during growth.
- -the intervertebral disc.
- -between pubis bone
- -manubrium and the body of the sternum.
What are the types? (6)
- freely movable.
- -Ball and socket (shoulder)
- -hinge (arm)
- -saddle (thumb)
- -ellipsoid (wrist)
- -pivot (neck)
- -gliding (shoulder)