HESI A&P Digestive System

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HESI A&P Digestive System
2013-02-01 00:59:56
HESI Digestive System

Digestive System review portion of HESI exam
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  1. The Alimentary canal consists of...
    • Mouth 
    • Pharynx
    • Esophagus
    • Stomach
    • Sm. Intestine
    • Lrg. Intestine
    • Rectum
    • Anus
  2. The accessory organs of the digestive system include...
    • Liver
    • Pancreas
    • Gallbladder
  3. Food is _______ broken down by the teeth and tongue in the process of mastication.
  4. _________ lubricates and dilutes the chewed food.
  5. How many salivary glands are present?
    3 pairs
  6. Saliva contains an enzyme called _______ that starts the digestion of complex _____________.
    • amylase
    • carbohydrates
  7. What is a Bolus?
    a ball of food that has already been chewed
  8. Constrictive muscles of the ______ forces the food into the upper portion of the ________, and the food is swallowed.
    • pharynx
    • esophagus
  9. What is the esophagus?
    a narrow tube leading from the pharynx to the stomach.
  10. What are the 4 main layers (membranes)  of the digestive tract? (from innermost to outer)
    • Mucous Membrane
    • Submucosa Layer
    • Muscular Layer
    • Serous Layer
  11. What do gastric glands secrete to breakdown food?
    Hydrochloric Acid
  12. The stomach muscles churns and mixes the bolus of food, turning the  mass into a soupy substance called _____.
  13. ________ & _________ of food occurs in the small intestine.
    • Digestion
    • Absorption
  14. In the small intestine, food is acted on by various _______ from the sm.intestine and pancreas and ___ form the liver.
    • enzymes
    • bile
  15. The ________ also contributes water to dilute the chyme and bicarbonate ions to neutralize the acid from the stomach.
  16. What are the 3  major regions of the Small intestine?
    • Duodenum
    • Jejunum
    • Ileum
  17. ________are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine.
  18. The _____ _____ and ______ ______ derived from the proteins and carbohydrates are absorbed directly into the blood.
    • Amino acids
    • Simple sugars
  19. Most of the ___ are absorbed into the lymph by lacteals, which eventually are added into the bloodstream. 
  20. All nutrients enter the _____ portal vein to be routed to the liver for ____________.
    • hepatic
    • decontamination
  21. What are villi?
    Small, finger like projections that greatly increase the surface area of the intestinal wall.
  22. The large intestine ______ water and stores and _______ undigested food.
    • Reabsorbs
    • Eliminates
  23. What bacteria is present in the large intestine?
    intestinal flora
  24. What are the 5 portions of the large intestine?
    • Ascending Colon
    • Transverse Colon
    • Descending Colon
    • Sigmoid Colon
    • Rectum
  25. The opening for defecation is the ____.