Chapter 1 Biology

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freddy562
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197082
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Chapter 1 Biology
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2013-02-11 18:07:38
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What Life Biology 120 Jay Phelan Chapter
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  1. Scientific Method/Approach
    • 1.Observation
    • 2.Question
    • 3.Hypothesis
    • 4.Prediction
    • 5.Gather information
    • 6.Experiments
    • 7.Assess results
    • 8.Report

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  2. The Scientific Method
    • 1)Observation
    • 2)Hypothesis
    • 3)Test
    • 4)Analysis
    • 5)Share

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  3. Hypothesis
    a proposed explanation for observed phenomena; Based on observations.
  4. Theory
    is an explanatory hypothesis for natural phenomena that is exceptionally well supported by the empirical data. A theory can be thought of as a hypothesis that has withstood the test of time and is unlikely to be altered by any new evidence.
  5. hypothesis must accomplish what two things
    • 1.It must clearly establish mutually exclusive alternative explanations for a phenomenon.
    • 2.It must generate testable predictions.
  6. Independent Variables
    some measurable entity that is available at the start of a process and whose value can be changed as required
  7. Dependent Variables
    created by the process being observed and whose value cannot be controlled.
  8. Scientific Theory
    hypothesis has not been disproven over time and has a large body of data to support it.
  9. Anecdotal Observations
    • do not include a sufficiently large and representative set of observations of the world
    • data are more reliable than anecdotes
    • in which, based on just one or a few observations, people conclude that there is or is not a link between two things.
  10. Atoms
    • make up both living and non-living things.
    • Atoms join with other atoms to form molecules
    • are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons
  11. Levels of Organization
    • 1) Atoms
    • 2) Molecules
    • 3) Cells
    • 4) Tissue
    • 6) Organ
    • 7) Body(organ) system
    • 8) Organism
    • 9) Population
    • 10) Community
    • 11) Ecosystem
    • 12) Biosphere

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  12. Organism
    is multi-cellular individual.
  13. Population
    is a group of individuals of the same kind of organism living in an area.
  14. Communities
    consist of all populations of all species in a specified area
  15. Ecosystem
    a community interacting with its physical and chemical environment
  16. Biosphere
    all regions of Earth’s crust, waters, and atmosphere in which organisms live
  17. Origin of Life
  18. Classification
    • Domain(3-Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya)
    • Kingdom(4- Animal, Plant, Fungi, Protista)
    • Phylum(ex. chordata)
    • Class(ex. mammalia)
    • Order(ex Carnivora)
    • Family(ex. felidea)
    • Genus(ex. panthera)
    • Species(ex. pardus)

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  19. scientific name
    • Genus then species
    • ex, Panthera pardus
  20. What makes something qualify as living?
    • Organized into a cell/s
    • Contains DNA
    • Can reproduce
    • require energy inputs
    • Grow and develop
    • Respond to stimuli
    • Homeostatic
    • Evolves
  21. Producers
    acquires energy and raw materials from the environment (ex photosynthesis)
  22. photosynthesis
    to convert solar energy to chemical energy. (use sunlight to make sugars). (plants, bacteria etc)
  23. 2 ways in which organisms can obtain their nutrients
    producers and cosumers
  24. Consumers
    • energy and nutrients are obtained by consuming producers and other organisms.
    • Ex: animals decomposers
  25. Energy Flow
    • is not cyclic
    • from sunlight to producers to consumers
  26. DNA
    • Biological instructions are encoded in a molecule known as DNA
    • accounts for an individuals traits
  27. Reproduction
    is the mechanism by which parents transmit DNA to offspring
  28. Evolution
    • Mutations: adaptive traits
    • Darwin’s “Survival of the Fittest”
    • Natural selection-
  29. Why study biology?
    • Technology
    • Health
    • Global Patterns
    • Fun!
  30. Cinchona Tree
    Treatment for malaria
  31. Decomposers
    breakdown organic wastes, releasing chemical components that can then be reused by plants and other primary producers
  32. 3 Domains
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
    • Eukarya
  33. 4 Eukarya Kingdoms
    • Animal- Consumers - multicellular
    • Plant- Producers- multicellular
    • Fungi- Decomposers - unicellular
    • Protista- producers, consumers, and decomposers - unicellular

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