Chapter 1 Biology
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. What would you like to do?
- 5.Gather information
- 7.Assess results
The Scientific Method
a proposed explanation for observed phenomena; Based on observations.
is an explanatory hypothesis for natural phenomena that is exceptionally well supported by the empirical data. A theory can be thought of as a hypothesis that has withstood the test of time and is unlikely to be altered by any new evidence.
hypothesis must accomplish what two things
- 1.It must clearly establish mutually exclusive alternative explanations for a phenomenon.
- 2.It must generate testable predictions.
some measurable entity that is available at the start of a process and whose value can be changed as required
created by the process being observed and whose value cannot be controlled.
hypothesis has not been disproven over time and has a large body of data to support it.
- do not include a sufficiently large and representative set of observations of the world
- data are more reliable than anecdotes
- in which, based on just one or a few observations, people conclude that there is or is not a link between two things.
- make up both living and non-living things.
- Atoms join with other atoms to form molecules
- are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons
Levels of Organization
AMC TOBO PC EB
- 1) Atoms
- 2) Molecules
- 3) Cells
- 4) Tissue
- 6) Organ
- 7) Body(organ) system
- 8) Organism
- 9) Population
- 10) Community
- 11) Ecosystem
- 12) Biosphere
is multi-cellular individual.
is a group of individuals of the same kind of organism living in an area.
consist of all populations of all species in a specified area
a community interacting with its physical and chemical environment
all regions of Earth’s crust, waters, and atmosphere in which organisms live
- Domain(3-Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya)
- Kingdom(4- Animal, Plant, Fungi, Protista)
- Phylum(ex. chordata)
- Class(ex. mammalia)
- Order(ex Carnivora)
- Family(ex. felidea)
- Genus(ex. panthera)
- Species(ex. pardus)
- Genus then species
- ex, Panthera pardus
What makes something qualify as living?
- Organized into a cell/s
- Contains DNA
- Can reproduce
- require energy inputs
- Grow and develop
- Respond to stimuli
acquires energy and raw materials from the environment (ex photosynthesis)
to convert solar energy to chemical energy. (use sunlight to make sugars). (plants, bacteria etc)
2 ways in which organisms can obtain their nutrients
producers and cosumers
- energy and nutrients are obtained by consuming producers and other organisms.
- Ex: animals decomposers
- is not cyclic
- from sunlight to producers to consumers
- Biological instructions are encoded in a molecule known as DNA
- accounts for an individuals traits
is the mechanism by which parents transmit DNA to offspring
- Mutations: adaptive traits
- Darwin’s “Survival of the Fittest”
- Natural selection-
Why study biology?
- Global Patterns
Treatment for malaria
breakdown organic wastes, releasing chemical components that can then be reused by plants and other primary producers
4 Eukarya Kingdoms
- Animal- Consumers - multicellular
- Plant- Producers- multicellular
- Fungi- Decomposers - unicellular
- Protista- producers, consumers, and decomposers - unicellular
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