AP Gov Unit 1

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mnmitch
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197149
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AP Gov Unit 1
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2013-02-11 11:10:21
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unit 1
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  1. Goverment
    the institutions and processes through which public policies are made for a society
  2. Public goods
    goods, such as clean air and clean water, that everyone must have
  3. politics
    the process by which we select out governmental leaders and what policies these leaders pursue  Politics produce authoritative decisions about public issues
  4. political participation
    the process by which we select our governmental leaders or the policies they pursue. Voting is the most common but not the only means of political participation in a democracy. Other means include protest and civil disobedience
  5. single-issue groups
    groups that have a narrow interest, tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics. These features distinguish them from traditional interest groups
  6. policymaking system
    the process by which policy comes into being and evolves over time. People's interests, problems, and concerns create political issues for government policymakers. These issues shape policy, which impact people, generating more interests, problems, and concerns.
  7. linkage institutions
    the political channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the policy agenda. In the US, linkage institutions include elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media
  8. Policy agenda
    the issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people actually involved in politics at any given point in time
  9. Political issue
    an issue that arises then people disagree about a problem and how to fix it
  10. policymaking institutions
    the branches of government charged with taking action on political issues. The US constitution established 3 policymaking institutions- congress, presidency, and the courts. 
  11. public policy
    a choice that government makes in response to a political issue
  12. democracy
    a system of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public's preferences
  13. representation
    relationship between the few leaders and many followers
  14. pluralist theory
    emphasizes that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies
  15. elite and class theory
    theory stating societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organizaion
  16. hyperpluralism
    a theory that groups are so strong that the government is weakened.
  17. policy gridlock
    a condition that occurs when no coalition is strong enough to form a majority and establish policy, nothing may get done
  18. political culture
    an overall set of values widely shared within a society
  19. gross domestic policy
    the sum total of the value of all the goods and services produced in a nation
  20. constitution
    • -a nation's basic law
    • -creates political institutions, assigns or divides powers in gov
    • -provides certain guarantees to citizens
  21. Declaration of Independence
    the document approved by reps of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the british monarch and declared their independence
  22. natural rights
    rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on govs
  23. consent of the governed
    idea that gov derives its authority by sanction of the people
  24. limited gov
    idea that certain restrictions should be placed on gov to protect the natural rights of citizens
  25. Articles of Confederation
    1st constitution of the US, adopted by congress in 1777, enacted in 1781. Most authority rested in state legislatures 
  26. Shay's Rebellion
    A series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by Rev War capt Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings
  27. US Constitution
    • -doc written in 1787
    • -ratified in 1788
    • -sets forth the institutional structure of US gov and the tasks these institutions perform
    • -replaced AoC
  28. factions
    • intrest groups arising from the unequal distribution of property or wealth
    • James Madison Attacked in Federalist Paper #10
  29. New Jersey Plan
    proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for equal representation of each state in Congress regardless of the state's population
  30. Virginia Plan
    proposal at Constitutional Convention that called for representation of each state in Congress in proportion to that state's share of the US population
  31. Connecticut Compromise
    • The compromise reached at the Constitutional Convention
    • established 2 houses of Congress: House of Reps (based on pop) and Senate (2 per state)
  32. Writ of habeas corpus
    a court order requiring hailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner in custody
  33. separation of powers
    a feature of the constitution that requires each of the 3 braches (exec, legislative, judicial)  to be independent of the others
  34. checks and balances
    features of the constitution that limit gov's power by requiring that power be balanced among diff gov institutions
  35. Repblic
    a form of gov in which the people select reps to govern them and make laws
  36. federalists
    supporters of the US constitution at the time the states were contemplating its adoption
  37. Anti-federalists
    opponents of the American Constitution at the time when the states were contemplating its adoption
  38. Federalist Papers
    A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the constitution in detail
  39. Bill of Rights
    • Te first 10 amendments to the US constitution, drafted in response to some of the Anti-federalist concerns
    • define basic liberties (freedom of religion, speech, press)
  40. Equal Rights Amendment
    • A constitutional amendment passed by congress in 1972 stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the US or by any state on account of sex."
    • failed because it could not get 3/4 support
  41. Marbury v. Madison
    • 1803 case
    • Chief Justice John Marshall 1st asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the US Constitution
  42. judicial review
    power of the courts to determine whether acts of Congress and , by implication, the exec are in accord with the US Constitution
  43. federalism
    a way of organizing a nation so that 2 or more levels of gov have formal authority over the same land and people
  44. unitary gov
    a way of organizing a nation sot hat all power resides in the central gov.
  45. intergovernmental relations
    the workings of the federal system- the entire set of interactions among nations, state, and local gov.
  46. supremacy clause
    Article VI of the constitution, which makes the constitutions, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national gov is acting within its constitutional limits
  47. Tenth Amendment
    The constitutional amendment stating, "the powers not delegated to the US by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people."
  48. McCulloh v. Maryland
    • An 1819 Supreme court decision that established the supremacy of the nat'l gov over state.
    • In deciding this case, Chief Justice John Marshall and his colleagues held that Congress had certain implied powers in addition to the enumerated powers found in the constitution
  49. enumerated powers
    powers of the federal gov that specifically addressed by the Constitution
  50. Implied powers
    powers of the federal gov that go beyond those enumerated in the Constitution
  51. Elastic clause
    "authorizes Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers
  52. Gibbons v Ogden
    A landmark case decided in 1824 in which Supreme Court interpreted very broadly the clause in Article I Sec 8, of the constitution giving the Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce, encompassing virtually every form of commercial activity
  53. full faith and credit
    A clause in Article IV, sec 1, of the constitution requiring each state to recognize the official docs and civil judgments rendered by the courts of other states
  54. extradition
    a legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed.
  55. privileges and immunities
    a clause in article IV, sec 2, of the constitution according citizens of each state most the privileges of citizens of other states
  56. dual federalism
    a system of gov in which both the states and the nat'l gov remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies
  57. cooperative federalism
    • a system of gov in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and national governments
    • share costs, admin, blame
  58. fiscal federalism
    • the pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system
    • cornerstone of the national gov' relations with state and local gov
  59. categorical grants
    federal grants that can be used only for specific purposes, or "categories," of state and local spending
  60. project grants
    federal categorical grants given for specific purposes and awarded on the basis of merits of applications
  61. formula grants
    federal categorical grants distributed according to a formula specified in legislation or in admin regulations
  62. block grants
    federal grants given more or less automatically to states or communities to support broad programs in area such as community development and social services

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