17.1.3

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DesLee26
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17.1.3
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2013-02-01 11:51:25
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HON 122
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The Eighteenth Century: An Age of Enlightenment
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  1. Intellectuals
    • a.      Intellectuals of Enlightenment= philosophes (not all French; few philosophers)
    •                                                               i.      Literary people, professors, journalists, statesmen, economists, political scientists, and social reformers from nobility and middle class and even lower origins
  2. I.                   The Philosophes and their Ideas
    International and cosmopolitan movement
    • a.      Although international and cosmopolitan movement, the Enlightenment enhanced the dominant role being played by French culture with Paris as capital (mostly French)
    •                                                               i.      French philosophes affected intellectuals and created a movement that engulfed the entire Western world and British and Spanish colonies
    • b.      They faced different political circumstances depending on their country, but they shared common bonds as international movement
  3. I.                   The Philosophes and their Ideas
    Role of Philosophy
    • a.      Role of philosophy to them was to change the world, not discuss it
    •                                                               i.      Philosophe applies self to studying society to make mankind better and happier
    • 1.      To them, rationalism was not creation of grandiose system of thought to explain all things
    • a.      Reason= scientific method, an appeal to facts and experience
    • b.      Rational criticism applied to all, including religion and politics
  4. I.                   The Philosophes and their Ideas
    Freedom of Expression
    • a.      Their call for freedom of expression is a reminder that their work was done in an atmosphere of censorship
    •                                                               i.      Not free to write anything
    •                                                             ii.      State censors decided what could be published, and protests from government could result in the seizure of books and imprisonment of their authors, publishers, and sellers
  5. I.                   The Philosophes and their Ideas
    Ways around it
    •                                                               i.      Ways around it
    • 1.      Some published under pseudonyms or anonymously
    • 2.      Double meanings became standard
    • 3.      Books published and circulated secretly or in manuscript form to avoid censors
    •                                                             ii.      When governments burn a bookà POPULAR
  6. I.                   The Philosophes and their Ideas
    Family Circle
    • a.      Philosophes constituted “family circle” bound by common intellectuals, but disagreed
    •                                                               i.      Enlightenment evolved over time, with each generation becoming more radical as it built on contributions of previous one
    • Three French giants: Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot
  7. I.                   The Philosophes and their Ideas
    Montesquieu and Political Thought
    •                                                               i.      Charles de Secondat, the baron de Montesquieu (French nobility)
    •                                                             ii.      Received Classical education and then studied law
    • 1.      Persian Letters: 1721
    • a.      Used format of two Persians traveling in western Europe and sending impressions back home to enable him to criticize French institutions, especially the Catholic Church and French monarchy
    • b.      Much of French Enlightenment contained in work
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Attack on traditional religion
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Advocacy of religious toleration
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      Denunciation of slavery
    •                                                                                                                                   iv.      Use of reason to liberate human beings from prejudice
  8. I.                   The Philosophes and their Ideas
    The Spirit of the Laws
    • 1.      The Spirit of the Laws, 1748
    • a.      Comparative study of governments in which Montesquieu attempted to apply the scientific method to the social and political arena to ascertain the “natural laws” governing the social relationships of human beings
  9. I.                   The Philosophes and their Ideas
    Three Basic Kinds of Gov
    • 1.      Republics: suitable for small states and based on citizen involvement
    • 2.      Monarchy: middle-sized states and grounded in ruling class’s adherence to law
    • 3.      Despotism: apt for large empires and dependent on fear to inspire obedience  
    •                                                             i.      Translation of work into Englishà US Constitution
  10. I.                   The Philosophes and their Ideas
    Example of Monarchy
    • a.      England as example
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Praised and analysis of England’s constitution led to contribution to political thought—importance of checks and balances created by means of a separation of powers
    • 1.      England’s system, with executive, legislative, and judicial powers, served to limit and control each other and provided greatest freedom and security for a state
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      He misread the English situation and insisted on a separation of powers because he wanted the nobility of France to play an active role in running the French government
  11. I.                   The Philosophes and their Ideas
    Voltaire
    • a.      Voltaire (Francois-Marie Arouet) and the Enlightenment
    •                                                               i.      Greatest figure from prosperous middle class Paris family
    •                                                             ii.      Classical education from Jesuit schools
    • 1.      Studied law < writerà playwright
    • a.      Successor to Racine for edipe and henriade on Henry IV
  12. I.                   The Philosophes and their Ideas
    Voltaire's wit
    •                                                               i.      Wit= loved by Paris intellectuals but quarreled with noblemanà fled Franceà England
    •                                                             ii.      Impressed by Englandà Philosophic Letters on the English= admired English life (freedom of press, political freedom, religious toleration)
    • 1.      Through description of England, he criticized French (royal absolutism and lack of religious toleration of free thought)
    • a.      Cricism of absolute monarchy reflected broader dissatisfaction of miidle-class individuals with their societyà upheavals
  13. I.                   The Philosophes and their Ideas
    Voltaire's return to France
    •                                                               i.      Return to Franceà rep as author of Phi. Letters forced retirementà lived with mistress, the marquise du Chatelet
    • 1.      An early philosophe and first intellectual to adopt Newton’s ideas and publish own translation of Principia
    • 2.      Together, she and he wrote book about natural philosophy of Newton
  14. I.                   The Philosophes and their Ideas
    Estate at Ferney
    •                                                               i.      Later lived on estate at Ferney, which allowed him freedom to write anything
    • 1.      Through writings, inheritance, and clever investments= rich and leisure to write pamphlets, novels, plays, letters, and histories
  15. I.                   The Philosophes and their Ideas
    Voltaire Touched on Themes
    •                                                               i.      Touched on all themes, but known for criticism of traditional religion and strong attachment to ideal of religious toleration
    • 1.      Lent prestige and skills as polemicist to fighting cases of intolerance in France
  16. I.                   The Philosophes and their Ideas
    Calas affair
    • a.      Most famous= Calas affair
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Jean Calas (Protestant acused of murdering son to stop him from turning Catholic) tortured to cnfess until death after
    • 1.      Voltaire published broadsides that aroused public opinion and forced retrial iin which Calas was exonerated when proved his son committed suicide
    • a.      Family paid indemnity and Voltaire’s appeals for toleration seemed more reasonable à (1763) tREATY on Toleration
  17. I.                   The Philosophes and their Ideas
    Treaty on Toleration
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Argued that religious toleration created no problems for England and Holland and reminded governments that all men brouthers under God
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      As he grew older, he emphasized it more
  18. I.                   The Philosophes and their Ideas
    Voltaire and religion
    •                                                               i.      Throughout life, he championed not only religious toleration but also deism, a religious outlook shared by most other philosophes
    • 1.      Built on Newtonian world-machine, which suggested existence of mechanic God who created universe
    • a.      God= no direct involvement in world he had created and allowed it to run on own natural laws; he did not extend grace or answer prayers as Christians believed
    • b.      Jesus= good fellow, but not divine
  19. I.                   The Philosophes and their Ideas
    Diderot and the Encyclopedia
    • a.      Diderot and the Encyclopedia
    •                                                               i.      Son of skilled craftsman from eastern France, became a freelance writer so he could study many subjects and read in many languages
    •                                                             ii.      One of favorite topics= Christianity (fanatical and unreasonable)
    • 1.      Attacks grew vicious with age; it was the worst to him
    • a.      End of life= wanted essentially materialistic conception of life
  20. I.                   The Philosophes and their Ideas
    Encyclopedia, or Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades
    •                                                               i.      Encyclopedia, or Classified Dictionary fo the Sciences, Arts, and Trades that he edited and called the “great work of his life”
    • 1.      Purpose= to change the general way of thinking
    • a.      Achieved and became major weapon in philosophe’s crusade against old French society
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Contributors= philosophes who expressed major concerns 
  21. I.                   The Philosophes and their Ideas
    Encyclopedia, or Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades attacked..
    1.      Attacked religious superstition and advocated toleration and program for social, legal, and political improvements that would lead to society more cosmopolitan, tolerant, humane, and reasonable
  22. I.                   The Philosophes and their Ideas
    Encyclopedia, or Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades
    Decline of Price
    Decline of price= increase in sales/ available to allà spread 

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