PSY215 Chapter 4

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PSY215 Chapter 4
2013-02-01 13:35:49
Developmental Psychology vocabulary

Experiencing the Lifespan Belsky Infancy: Socioemotional Development
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  1. The powerful bond of love between a caregiver and child (or between any two individuals).
  2. The important transitional stage after babyhood, from roughly 1 year to 2 1/2 years of age; defined by an intense attachment to caregivers and by an urgent need to become independent.
  3. The closest person in a child's life or adult's life.
    Primary attachment figure
  4. Acting to maintain physical contact or be close to an attachment figure.
    Proximity-seeking behavior
  5. The first phase of John Bowlby's developmental attachment sequence, during the first 3 months of life, when infants show no visible signs of attachment.
    Preattachment phase
  6. The first real smile, occurring at about 2 months of age.
    Social smile
  7. The second phase of John Bowlby's developmental attachment sequence, lasting from about 4 to 7 months of age, when infants show a slight preference for their primary caregiver.
    Attachment in the making
  8. The critical period for human attachment, lasting from roughly 7 months of age through toddlerhood, characterized by separation anxiety, the need to have a caregiver physically close, and stranger anxiety.
    Clear-cut attachment
  9. The main signal of clear-cut attachment at about 7 months of age, when a baby gets visibly upset by a primary caregiver's departure.
    Separation anxiety
  10. A signal of the onset of clear-cut attachment at about 7 months of age, when a baby becomes wary of unfamiliar people and refuses to be held by anyone other than a primary caregiver.
    Stranger anxiety
  11. A baby's practice of checking back and monitoring a caregiver's expressions for cues as to how to behave in potentially dangerous exploration situations; linked to the onset of crawling and clear-cut attachment.
    Social referencing
  12. According to Bowlby's theory, the mental representation of a caregiver that allows children beyond age 3 to be physically apart from a primary caregiver and predicts their behavior in relationships
    Working model
  13. A procure developed by Mary Ainsworth to measure variations in attachment security at age 1, involving a series of planned separations and reunions with a primary caregiver.
    Strange Situation
  14. The ideal attachment response, when a 1-year-old child responds with joy at being reunited with the primary caregiver in the Strange Situation.
    Secure attachment
  15. A deviation from the normally joyful response to being reunited with the primary caregiver in the Strange Situation, signaling a problem in the caregiver-child relationship.
    Insecure attachment
  16. An insecure attachment style characterized by a child's indifference to the primary caregiver when they are reunited in the Strange Situation.
    Aviodant attachment
  17. An insecure attachment style characterized by a child's intense distress at separation and by anger and great difficulty being soothed when reunited with the primary caregiver in the Strange Situation.
    Anxious-ambivalent attachment
  18. An insecure attachment style characterized by responses such as freezing or fear when a child is reunited with the primary caregiver in the Strange Situation.
    Disorganized attachment
  19. The reciprocal aspect of the attachment relationship, with a caregiver and infant responding emotionally to each other in a sensitive, exquisitely attuned way.
  20. A person's characteristic, inborn style of dealing with the world.
  21. According to child advocates, the real minimum income it takes for a family to decently make ends meet in the US; defined as twice the poverty line.
    Low income
  22. A federal program offering high-quality day care at a  enter and other services to help preschoolers aged 3 to 5 from low-income families prepare for school.
    Head Start
  23. A federal program that provides counseling and other services to low-income parents and children under age 3.
    Early Head Start
  24. A day-care arrangement in which a neighbor or relative cares for a small number of children in their home for a fee.
    Family day care
  25. A day-care arrangement in which a large number of children are cared for at a licensed facility by paid providers.
    Day-care center
  26. Teaching-oriented childcare setting, serving children aged 3 to 5.
  27. Erikson's second psychosocial task, when toddlers confront the challenge of understanding that they are separate individuals.
    Autonomy (vs. shame and doubt)
  28. Feelings of pride, shame or guilt, which first emerge around age 2 and show the capacity to reflect on the self.
    Self-conscious emotions
  29. The process by which children are taught to obey the norms of society and to behave in socially appropriate ways.
  30. An ineffective socialization strategy that involves yelling, screaming, or hitting out in frustration at a child.
    Power assertion
  31. An ideal parenting strategy that involves arranging children's environments to suit their temperaments, minimizing their vulnerabilities and accentuating their strengths.
    Goodness of Fit