Experiencing the Lifespan Belsky
Infancy: Socioemotional Development
The powerful bond of love between a caregiver and child (or between any two individuals).
The important transitional stage after babyhood, from roughly 1 year to 2 1/2 years of age; defined by an intense attachment to caregivers and by an urgent need to become independent.
The closest person in a child's life or adult's life.
Primary attachment figure
Acting to maintain physical contact or be close to an attachment figure.
The first phase of John Bowlby's developmental attachment sequence, during the first 3 months of life, when infants show no visible signs of attachment.
The first real smile, occurring at about 2 months of age.
The second phase of John Bowlby's developmental attachment sequence, lasting from about 4 to 7 months of age, when infants show a slight preference for their primary caregiver.
Attachment in the making
The critical period for human attachment, lasting from roughly 7 months of age through toddlerhood, characterized by separation anxiety, the need to have a caregiver physically close, and stranger anxiety.
The main signal of clear-cut attachment at about 7 months of age, when a baby gets visibly upset by a primary caregiver's departure.
A signal of the onset of clear-cut attachment at about 7 months of age, when a baby becomes wary of unfamiliar people and refuses to be held by anyone other than a primary caregiver.
A baby's practice of checking back and monitoring a caregiver's expressions for cues as to how to behave in potentially dangerous exploration situations; linked to the onset of crawling and clear-cut attachment.
According to Bowlby's theory, the mental representation of a caregiver that allows children beyond age 3 to be physically apart from a primary caregiver and predicts their behavior in relationships
A procure developed by Mary Ainsworth to measure variations in attachment security at age 1, involving a series of planned separations and reunions with a primary caregiver.
The ideal attachment response, when a 1-year-old child responds with joy at being reunited with the primary caregiver in the Strange Situation.
A deviation from the normally joyful response to being reunited with the primary caregiver in the Strange Situation, signaling a problem in the caregiver-child relationship.
An insecure attachment style characterized by a child's indifference to the primary caregiver when they are reunited in the Strange Situation.
An insecure attachment style characterized by a child's intense distress at separation and by anger and great difficulty being soothed when reunited with the primary caregiver in the Strange Situation.
An insecure attachment style characterized by responses such as freezing or fear when a child is reunited with the primary caregiver in the Strange Situation.
The reciprocal aspect of the attachment relationship, with a caregiver and infant responding emotionally to each other in a sensitive, exquisitely attuned way.
A person's characteristic, inborn style of dealing with the world.
According to child advocates, the real minimum income it takes for a family to decently make ends meet in the US; defined as twice the poverty line.
A federal program offering high-quality day care at a enter and other services to help preschoolers aged 3 to 5 from low-income families prepare for school.
A federal program that provides counseling and other services to low-income parents and children under age 3.
Early Head Start
A day-care arrangement in which a neighbor or relative cares for a small number of children in their home for a fee.
Family day care
A day-care arrangement in which a large number of children are cared for at a licensed facility by paid providers.
Teaching-oriented childcare setting, serving children aged 3 to 5.
Erikson's second psychosocial task, when toddlers confront the challenge of understanding that they are separate individuals.
Autonomy (vs. shame and doubt)
Feelings of pride, shame or guilt, which first emerge around age 2 and show the capacity to reflect on the self.
The process by which children are taught to obey the norms of society and to behave in socially appropriate ways.
An ineffective socialization strategy that involves yelling, screaming, or hitting out in frustration at a child.
An ideal parenting strategy that involves arranging children's environments to suit their temperaments, minimizing their vulnerabilities and accentuating their strengths.