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2013-02-01 22:32:37
HON 122

The Eighteenth Century: An Age of Enlightenment
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  1. The New "Science of Man"
    •                                                               i.      Enlightenment belief that Newton’s scientific methods could be used to discover natural laws underlying all areas of human life led to emergence of “science of man” (social sciences) (18th century)
    • 1.      Philosophes arrived at natural laws that they believed governed human actions
    • a.      Efforts laid foundation for modern social sciences
  2. David Hume
    •                                                               i.      Believed science of man was possible / “ a pioneering social scientist”
    •                                                             ii.      Treatise on Human Nature (renamed “An Attempt to Introduce the Experimental Method of Reasoning into Moral Subjects)
    • 1.      Argued that observation and reflection, grounded in “systematized common sense,” made conceivable a “science of man”
    • a.      Careful examination of life experiencesà knowledge of human nature that made this science possible
  3. Physiocrats and Adam Smith
    • a.      Physiocrats and Adam Smith (founders of modern discipline of economics)
    •                                                               i.      Leader: Francois Quesnay (French Court Physician)
    • 1.      He and Physiocrats claimed they would discover the natural economic laws that governed human society
  4. 1st Principle
    • a.      1st principle: land was the only source of wealth and wealth could be increased by agriculture because all other economic activities unproductive and sterile
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      State’s revenues should come form single tax on land rather than hodgepodge of inequitable taxes and privileges currently in place
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Stressed economic primacy of agricultural production showed the Physiocrats’ rejection of the mercantilist emphasis on the significance of money—gold and silver—as primary determinants of wealth 
  5. 2nd Principle
    • a.      2nd principle: represented a repudiation of mercantilism, specifically, its emphasis on a controlled economy for the benefit of the state
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Instead, they stressed that existence of the natural economic forces of supply and demand made it imperative that individuals should be left free to pursue their own economic self-interest
    • 1.      In doing so, all of society would benefit
    • a.      As a result, state should not interrupt economic forces by government regulation of the economy but rather should leave it alone, a doctrine that became known by laissez-faire
  6. Laissez-faire
    • 1.      Adam Smith= Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, or The Wealth of Nations
    • a.      In the process of enunciating three basic principles of economics, he attacked mercantilism
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      First, he condemned their use of tariffs to protect home industries
    • If one country can supply another country with a product cheaper than the latter can make it, it’s better to produce than purchase

     Free trade, to him, was a fundamental economic principle 
  7. Second Principle
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Second principle= labor theory of value
    • 1.      Claimed gold and silver were not source of nation’s wealth nor soil (Physiocrat belief)
  8. Finally, Smith believed...
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Finally, he believed that the state shouldn’t interfere in economic matters; he assigned to government three functions
    • 1.      Protect society from invasion (army)
    • 2.      Defend individuals from injustice and oppression (police)
    • 3.      Keep up certain public works like roads and canals that private individuals couldn’t afford
    • a.      His view twas that state should stay out of their lifes
  9. Economic Liberalism
    • a.      In emphasizing the economic liberty of the individual, the Physiocrats and Adam Smith laid foundation for economc liberalism
    • b.      The Later Enlightenment
    •                                                               i.      Late 1760s: new generation of philosophes who grew up with worldview of Enlightenment began to move beyond predecessors’ beliefs
  10. Baron Paul d'Holbach
    • 1.      Baron Paul d’Holbach preached of strict atheism and materialism
    • a.      System of Nature= argued htat everything in the universe consisted of matter in motion
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      human beings= machines/ God was a product of the human mind and was unnecessary for leading a moral life
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      people needed reason to live in world
    • b.      shocked fellow philosophes with his atheism
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      most intellectuals were comfortable with deism and feared atheism’s effect on society
  11. marie-Jean de Condorcet
    •                                                               i.      Marie-Jean de Condorcet (French philosophe) made an exaggerated claim for progress
    • 1.      Victim of turmoil of French Revolution and wrote The Progress of the Human Mind, while in hiding during Reign of Terror
    • a.      Survey of human history convinced him that humans had progressed through nine stages of history
    • b.      With spead of science and reason, they were entering tenth stage, one of perfection, in which they’ll see the limitless ability of perfecting powers
    • 2.      Died in prison
  12. Rousseau and the SOcial Contract
    • a.      Rousseau and the Social Contract
    •                                                               i.      Wandered France and Italy for jobs and studied music and the classics
    •                                                             ii.      Introduced to circles of philsophes in Paris; never liked social life of cities and went into solitude for several periods
  13.                                                               i.      Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind
    • 1.      Humans in primitive condition were happy with no laws or judges and equality
    • a.      To preserve private property, they adopted laws and governorsà chains as government was evil, but necessary
  14.                                                               i.      The Social Contract
    • 1.      Rousseau tried to harmonize individual liberty wit governmental authority
    • 2.      Agreement on the part of an entire society to be governed by its general will
    • a.      If any individual wished to follow his own self-interest, he should be compelled to abide by general will
    • b.      General will represented a community’s highest aspirations, whatever was best for the entire community
  15. How was liberty achieved?
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Thus, liberty was achieved through being forced to follow what was best for all people because, he believed, what was best for all was best for each individual
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      True freedom is adherence to laws that one has imposed on oneself
  16. Participatory Democracy
                                                                  i.      To him, because everyone was responsible for framing the general will, the creation of laws could never be delegated to a parliamentary institution= participatory democracy
  17. Emile
    •                                                               i.      Emile about education
    • 1.      Education should foster rather than restrict children’s natural instincts
    • 2.      Life’s experiences had shown rousseau the importance of the promptings of the heart, and what he sought was a balance between heart and mind, between sentiment and reason
    • a.      This emphasis made him a precursor of Romanticism
  18. Rousseau as a hypocrite
    •                                                               i.      Didn’t practice what he preached
    • 1.      His kidsà foundling homes
    • 2.      Women viewed as naturally different from men
    • a.      In Emile, Sophie, Emile’s wife, was educated as wife and mother by learning obedience and nurturing skills that would enable her to provide loving care for husband and children
  19. The Woman's Question
    • a.      The “Woman’s Question” in the Enlightenment
    •                                                               i.      Male intellectuals believed base nature of women made them inferior to men and made male domination of women necessary
    • 1.      17th-18th: male thinkers agreed by saying based on “natural biological differences” between sexes
  20. Female Constition
    • a.      Like Rousseau, they argued that the female constitution made women mothers
    • b.      Male writers were critical of attempts of some women in the Enlightenmnet ot write on intellectual issues, arguing that women were by nature intellectually inferior to men 
  21. Others disagreed
    1.      Diderot said men and women not different at all, and Voltaire said they are just as capable as men 
  22. Women thinkers
    •                                                               i.      Women thinkers= new perspectives by making specific suggestions for improving condition of women
    • 1.      Mary Astell= A Serious Proposoal to the Ladies
    • a.      Women needed to become better educated
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Men would resent her proposal, but women are just as capable of learning as men
    • b.      Some Reflections upon Marriage
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Argued for equality of sexes in marriage
  23. Mary Wollstonecraft
    • 1.      Mary Wollstonecraft= founder of modern European feminism
    • a.      Vindication of the Rights of Woman
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Two contradictions in views of women held by enlightenment thinkers
  24. To argue that women must obey men
    • 1.      To argue that women must obey men is contrary to beliefs of same individuals that a system based on the arbitrary power of monarchs over their subjects or slave owners over their slaves was wrong
    • a.      Subjection of women= equally wrong
  25. Enlightenment based on
    • 1.      Enlightenment based on ideal that reason is innate in all human beings
    • a.      If women have reason= they have same rightsa s men
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Women should have equal rights with men in education and economic and political life as well