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  1. I.                   The Social Environment of the Philosophes
    • a.      Varied (aristocrat to lower-middle class)
    • b.      Enlightenment= not preserve of one class, though aristocracy and upper middle class were appealed by it and common people were not affected 
  2. IV. The Social Environment of the Philosophes 
    • a.      Spread of ideas to literate elite of European society
    •                                                               i.      Published and sold books and treatises, as well as salon, which were elegant drawing rooms in the urban houses of the wealthy where invited philosophes and guests gathered to engage in conversations about ideas of philosophes
  3. I. The Social Environment of the Philosophes 
    • 1.      Important in bringing together writers and artists with aristocrats, government officials, and wealthy bourgeoisie
    • 2.      Women were hostess and affected decisions of kings, swayed political opinion, and influenced literary and artistic taste
    • 3.      Havens for people and views unwelcome in royal court
  4. I. The Social Environment of the Philosophes 
    Encyclopediai suppressed
    • a.      When Encyclopediai suppressed, Marie-Therese de Geoffrin welcomed encyclopedists to her salon and offered financial assistance to complete the work in secret
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      She had rivals: marquise de Deffand
    • 1.      Abandoned husband in provinces to go to Paris, where her drawing room attracted many great figures
  5. I. The Social Environment of the Philosophes 
    Reps and Importance of Salons
    • 1.      Reputation of salon depended on stature of males that came
    • a.      Still, females exerted influence on French politics à decline of salons
    • 2.      Importance of salon
    • Promoted conversation and sociability between upper-class men and women and spread ideas of Enlightenment
  6. I. The Social Environment of the Philosophes 
    Other ways of spreading ideas and learned societies
    •                                                               i.      Other ways of spreading ideas: coffeehouses, cafes, reading clubs, and public lending libraries wre gathering places for exchange of ideas
    •                                                             ii.      Learned societies formed
    • 1.      At such gatherings as the Select Society of Edinburgh, Scotland, and the American Philosophical Society in Philly, lawyers, doctors, etc. discussed enlightened ideas
  7. I. The Social Environment of the Philosophes 
    Secret Societies
                                                                  i.      Secret societies: Freemasons in London, France, Italy, and Prussia who liked philosophe idesa
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2013-02-02 03:38:39
HON 122

The Eighteenth Century: An Age of Enlightenment
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