17.2.1

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DesLee26
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17.2.1
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2013-02-01 22:48:19
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HON 122
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The Eighteenth Century: An Age of Enlightenment
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  1. Culture and Society in the Enlightenment

    I.                   Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
    Baroque and Neoclassical

    • a.      Baroque and Neoclassical=17th and 18th, but replaced (1730s) by Rococo
    •                                                               i.      Affected decoration and architecture
    •                                                             ii.      Baroque stressed majesty, power and movement, while Rococo emphasized grace and gentle action
  2. I.                   Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
    Rococo
    • a.      Rococo
    •                                                               i.      Rejected strict geometrical patterns and had a fondness for curves, following wandering lines of natural objects
    •                                                             ii.      Interlaced designs colored in gold with contours and curves
    •                                                           iii.      Spoke of pursuit of pleasure, happiness, and love
  3. I.                   Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
    Antoine Watteau
    •                                                               i.      Antoine Watteau
    • 1.      Lyrical views of aristocratic life—refined, sensual, civilzed, elegant—reflected upper-class pleasure and joy
    • a.      Underneath was sadness revealed by fragility and transitory nature of pleasure, love, and life
  4. I.                   Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
    Decorative work
    •                                                               i.      Decorative work collaborated with Baroque architecture
    • 1.      Palace of Versailles
    • a.      :Keepiing up with the Bourbons” became important several rulers built grandiose palaces
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      While emulating Versailles’s size, they modeled less after French classical style of Versailles than 17th c. Italian Barque, modified by Germain and Austrian sculptor-architects
  5. I.                   Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
    Baroque-Rococo architectural style and Balthasar Neumann
    • a.      Baroque-Rococo architectural style used in palaces and churches designed by same architects, such as Balthasar Neumman
    • b.      Balthasar Neumman
    •                                                               i.      Pilgrimage church of the Vierzehnheiligen in s. Germany
    •                                                             ii.      Bishop’s Palace (Residenz), the residential palace of the Schonborn prince-bishop of Wurzburg
    • 1.      Secular and spiritual= easily interchangeable in both buildings with lavish and fanciful ornament; light, bright colors; and elaborate, rich detail
  6. I.                   Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
    Neoclassicism
    • a.      Neoclassicism maintained strong appeal and emerged in France as established movement
    •                                                               i.      Artists wanted to recapture dignity and simplicity of Classical style of ancient Greece and Rome
    • 1.      Influenced by excavations of ancient Roman cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii
  7. I.                   Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
    Hacque-Louis David
    • 1.      Oath ofthe Horatii: re-created a scene from Roman history in which the three Horatius brothers swore oath before father, proclaiming willingness to die for country
    • 2.      Moral seriousnous emphasized honor and patriotism= popular
  8. I.                   Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
    Music
    •                                                               i.      Classical music (17-18th) and saw the rise of the opera and oratorio, the sonata, the concerto, and the symphony
    •                                                             ii.      Italians first developed genres, but followed by Germans, Austrians, Eng.
    •                                                           iii.      Musicians dependent on patron,  whose patronage made Italy and Germany musical leaders of Europe
    •                                                           iv.      Many techniques of Baroque musical style, which dominated Europe between 1600-1750, were perfected by Bach and Handel
  9. I.                   Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
    bach
    •                                                               i.      Bach (1685-1750)
    • 1.      From family of musicians and was organist and music director
    • a.      Director of church music at Church of Saint Thomas in Leipzig where he composed ihis Mass in B Minor, his Saint Matthew’s Passion, and the cantatas and motets that made him greatest
    • 2.      Music= worship god
  10. I.                   Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
    Handel
    •                                                               i.      Handel (1685-1759)
    • 1.      Born in Saxony in Germany with international career and had secular temperament
    • 2.      Italy= career as opera writerà England: tried to run opera company
    • 3.      Patronized by English royal court, but wrote music for large public audiences and wrote unusual pieces
  11. I.                   Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
    Handel Pieces
    • a.      Fireworks Music: accompanied by 101 cannons
    • 2.      Wrote more than forty operas and secular music, he’s known for religious music (Messiah)
  12. I.                   Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
    Orhestral Music
    •                                                               i.      Orchestral music= 2nd half of 18th with new instruments, like the piano
    •                                                             ii.      New era, classical era, with Haydn and Mozart
    • 1.      Their popularity replaced Italy and Germany with Austrian empire 
  13. I.                   Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
    Haydn
    •                                                               i.      Haydn
    • 1.      Musical director for wealthy Hungarian princes, the Esterhazy brothers
    • 2.      Prolific, composing 104 symphonies and string quartets, concerti, songs, oratorios, and Masses
    • 3.      Visited England, saw musicians writing for concerts, not princes, and this “liberty” à the Creation and The Seasons for commoners
  14. I.                   Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
    Mozart
    • 1.      Concerto, symphony, and opera reached height
    • 2.      First harpsichord concert at 6 and first opera at 12
    • 3.      Sought patronà discontent with commandsà moved to Viennaà couldn’t find patronà miserable lifeà still wrote musicàdied 
  15. I.                   Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
    The Marriage of Figaro
    • 1.      Carried tradition of Italian comic opera to new heights with The Marriage of Figaro, based on Parisian play of 1780s where vale outwits noble employers, and Don Giovanni, about Don’s havoc before going to hell
    • 2.      Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, and The Magic Flute= 3 of world’s greatest operas
    • 3.      Composed with ease of melody and blend of grace, precision, and emotion
  16. I.                   Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
    Development of the Novel
    • a.      Development of the Novel
    •                                                               i.      Not really new genre but grew out of medieval romances and picaresque stories
    •                                                             ii.      English credited with establishing the modern novel as the chief vehicle for fiction writing
    •                                                           iii.      No rules= experimentation and attractive to women readers/ writers
  17. I.                   Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
    Samuel Richardson
    • 1.      Printer by trade, wrote in fifties
    • a.      Pamela: or, Virtue Rewarded: servant girl resists seduction attempts of master, who recognizes her mind and beauty and marries herà virtue
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Appealed to sensibility (taste for sentiment/ emotion)
  18. I.                   Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
    Henry Fielding
    • 1.      Reacting against moral seriousness of Richardson, he wrote about people without scruples who survived by wits
    • a.      The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling: adventures of scoundrel
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Emphasized action rather than inner feeling and attacked hypocrisy of his age
  19. I.                   Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
    Writing of History
    •                                                               i.      Philosophes responsible for creating revolution in writing history
    • 1.      Their secular orientationà eliminate God in history and concentrate on events themselves/ search for causes in wordl
    • a.      Earlier humanist historians of Renaissance placed histories in purely secular settins, but not with same intensity and complete removal of God
  20. I.                   Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
    Philosophe-historian
    •                                                               i.      Philosope-historian broadened history form humanists’ preoccupation with politics
    • 1.      Politics predominated in work of Enlightenmnet historians, but they also paid mind to economic, social, intellectual, and cultural developments
    • a.      Voltaire initiated modern ideal of social history
  21. I.                   Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
    Philosophe-historian weakness
    • 1.      Weakness of them: preoccupations as philosophes
    • a.      Following ideals of classics that dominated their minds, they sought to instruct as wella s entertain
    • b.      They wanted to civilize their age, and history could play a role by revealing its lessons according to their vision
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Emphasis on science and reason and dislike of Christianity made them less sympathetic to Middle Ages
  22. I.                   Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
    Edward Gibbon
    • 1.      Noticeable in historiography, the six volme Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon
    • a.      Thought decline of Rome had many causes, but portrayed growth of Christianity as major reason for its collapse
    • b.      He believed in idea of progress, and in reflecting on decline/ fall of Rome, expressed his optimism about future of European civilizations and ability of them to avoid Roman fate 

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