17.2.2

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DesLee26
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197251
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17.2.2
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2013-02-01 22:55:33
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HON 122
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The Eighteenth Century: An Age of Enlightenment
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  1. I.                   The High Culture of The Eighteenth Century
    a.      High culture vs. popular culture
    •                                                               i.      High: literary and artistic world of the educated/ wealthy ruling classes
    •                                                             ii.      Popular: written and unwritten lore of the masses, most passed down orally
    • b.      18th century high culture: learned world of theologians, scientists, philosophers, intellectuals, etc. for whom Latim was truly international language
    •                                                               i.      Work supported by wealthy/ literate lay group, mainly the landed aristocrats and wealthier upper classes in the cities
  2. I.                   The High Culture of The Eighteenth Century
    Expansion
    • a.      Expanison of leading public and publishing
    •                                                               i.      French publishers were issuing 600 hundred titles yearly in 17802, up from 300 in 1750s
    • 1.      Many titles aimed at small groups of educated elite, many many directed dto new reading public of middle classes, including women and urban artisans
  3. I.                   The High Culture of The Eighteenth Century
    Growth of publishing houses
    •                                                               i.      Growth of the publishing housesà authors make money form worksà less dependent on patrons
    •                                                             ii.      Importance of growth of publishing and reading= development of magazines for general public
  4. I.                   The High Culture of The Eighteenth Century
    Great Britain
    • 1.      Great Britain, important for new magaizies
    • a.      25 periodicals (1700)à103 (1760)à158(1780)
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Joseph Addison and Richard Steele’s Spectator
    • 1.      Wished to instruct and entertain at same time
    • 2.      With praise of family, marriage, and courtesty, it also appealed to women
  5. I.                   The High Culture of The Eighteenth Century
    Some aimed at women
    Daily Newspapers
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Some aimed at women, The Female Spectator          
    • 1.      Edited by Eliza Haywood and featured articles from female writers
    •                                                             ii.      Daily newspapers
    • 1.      First one printed in London in 1702à (1780) 37 other English towns had own
    • a.      Filled with news and special features; chep; free in coffeehouses
  6. I.                   The High Culture of The Eighteenth Century
    Books
                                                                  i.      Books= wider circulation through development of public libraries in cities and private circulating libraries, which offered books for rent
  7. I.                   The High Culture of The Eighteenth Century
    Education and Universities
    • a.      Education and Universities
    •                                                               i.      18th: Europe had several privately endowned secondary schools, like grammar and public schools in England, the gymnasiums in German-speaking lands, and the colleges in France and Spain
    • 1.      Schools= elitist, desighned to meet needs of the children of the upper classes of society
  8. I.                   The High Culture of The Eighteenth Century
    European Secondary Schools
    • a.      European secondary schools perpetuated class hierarchy of Europe rather than allow social mobility
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Most philosophes reinforced belief that education should keep people in own social class
  9. I.                   The High Culture of The Eighteenth Century
    Curriculum of 2ndary schools
    •                                                               i.      Curriculum of secondary schools: Greek and Latin classics with some mathematics, sciences, and languages
    • 1.      Complaints from philosope-reformers, and merchants and other middle-class people who wanted sons to have more practical education, led to development of new schools with broader education
  10. I.                   The High Culture of The Eighteenth Century
    Realschule
    • a.      Germany: first Realschule in Berlin (1747) and offerend modern languages, geography, and bookkepings for careers in business
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Similar schools for  upper class girls, but focus on religion and domestic skills
  11. I.                   The High Culture of The Eighteenth Century
    Complaints
    •                                                               i.      Most common complaint about universities, especially from philosophes, was old-fashioned curriculum that emphasized classics and Aristotelian philosophy and provided no training int eh sciences or modern language
    • 1.      Before end of century, this criticism led to reforms that introduced new ideas in areas of physics, astronomy, and mathematics into universities

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