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  1. Crime and Punishment
    • a.      18th: hierarchy of courts to deal with crimes
    •                                                               i.      Except in England, judicial torture remained important means of obtaining evidence before a trial
    • 1.      Courts used racks, thumbscrews, etc. for confessions
  2. Crime and Punishment
    • a.      Punishments cruel and spectacular
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Public executions were traditional and regarded as necessary for deterring potential offenders in age when police too weak to capture criminals
    • 1.      Nobles= beheaded; lower class= torutured, broken on whell, or drawn and quartered
    • 2.      Death penalty for property crimes and violent offenses
    • a.      1800: more than 200 crimes were subject to death penalty in England 
  3. Crime and Punishment
    Forced Labor
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Besides executions, European states resorted to forced labor in mines, forts, and navies
    • 1.      Criminals in Engladn sent as indentured servants to colonies in New World and after American Revolution, to Australia
  4. Crime and Punishment
    •                                                               i.      Appalled by unjust laws and brutal punishments of times, some philosophes created new approach to justice
    • 1.      Cesare Beccaria: On Crimes and Punishments=  punishments shuld be deterrants, not brutal
    • a.      Also opposed to use of capital punishment
    • b.      Failed to stop others from committing crimes
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Imprisonment= bigger impression
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Capital punishment harmful due to barbarism
  5. Crime and Punishment
    End of 18th
    •                                                               i.      End of 18th: growing sentiment against executions and torture led to decline in both corporal and capital punishment
    • 1.      New prison, in which criminals placed in cells and subjected to discipline and regular work to rehabilitate them, replaced public spectacle of barbarous punishments
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2013-02-02 03:58:45
HON 122

The Eighteenth Century: An Age of Enlightenment
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