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2013-02-01 23:11:15
HON 122

The Eighteenth Century: An Age of Enlightenment
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  1. I.                   Popular Culture
    • a.      Refers to written and unwritten literature and the social activities and pursuits that are fundamental to the lives of most people
    •                                                               i.      Distinguishing characteristic is its collective and public nature
  2. I.                   Popular Culture
    Group Activity
    • 1.      Group activity evident in festival
    • a.      Community festivals in Catholic Europe for feat days
    • b.      Annual festivals for Christmas or Easter
    • c.       Carnival, the most spectacular form of festival
    • 2.      Special occasions whne people ate, drank, and celebrated to excess
    • a.      Time for relaxation and enjoyment because much of year was work 
  3. I.                   Popular Culture
    •                                                               i.      Celebrated in weeks leading up to beginning of Lent
    •                                                             ii.      Time of great indulgence (opposite of Lent)
    • 1.      Hearty consumption of food and heavy drinking and sex
    • 2.      Songs with double meanings that were considered offensive allowed to be sung
  4. I.                   Popular Culture
    Time of Aggression
    •                                                               i.      Time of aggression, to release pent-up feelings
    • 1.      Verbal aggression, since people could openly insult others and criticize superiors and authorities
    • 2.      Certain acts of physical violence permiteed
    • a.      Pelted with apples, eggs, etc. 
  5. I.                   Popular Culture
    Taverns and Alcohol
    •                                                               i.      Chief gathering places of commoners (taverns/ cabarets)
    • 1.      Talk, play games, conduct business, drink
    • a.      Favorite drinks of poor, such as gin, were devastating as poor drank themselves into oblivion
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Gin= cheap
    • 1.      England: consumption 2 milà5 mil gallons (1714-1733) and declined with sale restriction laws in 1750s
    • b.      Rich drank too, but drank port and brandy
  6. I.                   Popular Culture
    Rich and Poor
    •                                                               i.      Difference in drinking habits between rich and poor= separation between elite and poor
    • 1.      1500: popular culture for all ; second culture for elite, it was the only culture for the rest of society
    • a.      Between 1500-1800, nobles, clergymen, and bourgeouisie abandoned popular culture to lower classes
  7. I.                   Popular Culture
    Abandonment of nobles
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Abandoned popular festivals and popular worldview
    • 1.      New scientific outlook brought new mental world for upper class and they now viewed things like withcraft and fortune telling as beliefs of of those with weakest judgment and reason
  8. I.                   Popular Culture
    Literacy and Primary Education
    •                                                               i.      Popular culture included traditional songs an d stories that were passed down from generations
    • 1.      Not only on oral tradition as popular literature existed
  9. I.                   Popular Culture
    • a.      Chapbooks on cheap paper= brochures sold by itinerant peddlers to lower classes with spiritual and secular material; lives of saints and inspiration stories competed with satires and adventures
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Shows popular culture dind’t have to be oral 
  10. I.                   Popular Culture
    Ability to change
    • 1.      Ability to change dependent on growth of literacy
    • a.      Men rates increased from 29 (17th) to 47% (18th) and women (14-27)
    • b.      Upper class/ upper middle class more literate, but lower middle class artisans increased
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      28 (1710)-85%(’89) for men
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      Peasants illiterate
  11. I.                   Popular Culture
    Spread of Literacy
    •                                                               i.      Spread of literacy connected to primary education
    • 1.      Catholic Europe: primary education matter of local community effort= little real growth
    • Only in Habsburg Austrian empire was system of state-supported primary schools—Volkschulen—established
  12. I.                   Popular Culture
    •                                                               i.      Emphasis on Protestant reformers on reading the Bible led protestant states to take greater interest in primary education
    • 1.      Some places, like Swiss cantons, Scotland, and German states of Saxony and Prussia witnessed emergence of universal primary schools that provided a modicum of education for the masses
  13. I.                   Popular Culture
    Effective systems
    • a.      Effective systems of primary education hindered by ruling class, who feared consequences of teaching lower classes anything besides hard work and deference to superiors
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Hannah More (English writer who set up some Sunday schools) restricted writing for poor and only taught work that’ll suit them for servants