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The bases of DNA always bind ____ with ____ & ___ with ____ in _____ _____ bonds that are specific and complementary.
cytosine & guanine & adenine & tyrosine
concovalent hydrogen bonds
DNA replication process?
2 strands are separated by initiator proteins -> DNA polymerase binds single strands of DNA & begins forming new complementary strand of DNA
What will occur if DNA replication results in an error that is not corrected?
it will be passed to the next generation
Function of genes?
directs synthesis of protein and some others
Difference b/t RNA & DNA?
sugar molecule is ribose and there is only one strand and has uracil instead of thymine
process where mRNA is synthesized from a single-stranded DNA template
similar to DNA replication except thymine is replaced with uracil
Introns and exons?
introns - part of the gene that is not transcribed into the final mRNA
exons - part that is
process whereby messenger RNA is used to direct the synthesis of a protein
Process of translation?
mRNA codons are read -> ribosomes bind tRNA anticodons with mRNA codons and catalyze formation of peptize bonds b/t incoming aa's
6 ways proteins made by a cell can be controlled?
- 1. regulating rate and timing of gene transcription
- 2. controlling way mRNA is splcied
- 3. selecting mRNA that are transported to cytoplasm
- 4. selecting mRNA that are translated by ribosomes
- 5. selctively destroying cerain mRNA in cytoplasm
- 6. selectively controlling activity of the proteins after they have been produced
How do gene regulatory proteins control gene transcription?
bind near promoter sequence of DNA where the RNA polymerase must attach to initiate transcription of the gene; can be either activators or repressors of transcription
What causes cell differentiation?
How are cells of the body different?
differentiating influences experienced in the embryo
all have same genes but expression of few tissue-specific genes cause differences in diff cells
region of DNA so condensed it cannot be trascribed
4 essential processes that enable single cell to develop into a person/
- 1. cell proliferation
- 2. cell specialization
- 3. cell to cell interactions
- 4. cell movement and migration
2 classes of proteins important for multicellular development?
- transmembrane proteins that participate in cell adhesion and comm
- 2. DNA - binding proteins that regulate gene transcription
How does the single cell differentiate?
cells differentiate based on signals in their area and subsequent daughter cells of these retain the changes made and so on
transmembrane proteins that tie the cell's cuytoskeleton to particular matrix structures and and allow EC matrix to comm across plasma membrane and activate IC processes
4 major tissue types?
epi, muscle, nerve, and connective
Where is simple epithelium found?
in areas where absorption is a function: blood vessesl, alveoli, thyroid, sweat, salivary glands, kidney tubules, lining of intestine, glandular ducts
Where is pseudostratified epi found?
in resp tract