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2013-02-01 23:22:16
HON 122

The Eighteenth Century: An Age of Enlightenment
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  1. I.                   Popular Religion in the 18th Century
    Religious Devotion
    • a.      Religious devotion still strong
    • b.      Catholic Piety
    •                                                               i.      Catholic parish church= important center of life for entire community
    • 1.      90-95% of Catholics went to Mass on Easter Sunday
    •                                                             ii.      Catholic religiosity proved highly selective
  2. I.                   Popular Religion in the 18th Century
    Despire Reformaiton
    •                                                               i.      Despite the Reformation, much popular devotion was still directed to an externalized form of worship focusing on prayers to saints, pilgrimages, and devotion to relics and images
    • 1.      This bothered many clergymen, who felt that their parishioners were “more superstitious than devout”
    • a.      Many common people still feared witches and relied on intervention of saints and Virgin Mary to save them from disasters of devil
  3. I.                   Popular Religion in the 18th Century
    Protestant Revivalism
    • a.      Protestant Revivalism: Pietism
    •                                                               i.      After initial century of religious fervor that created Protestantism in 16th century, Protestant churches in 17th became well-established patterns controlled by state authorizes and served by well-educated clergy
    • 1.      Became bureaucratized and bereft of religious enthusaisam
  4. I.                   Popular Religion in the 18th Century
    Germany and England
    a.      In Germany and England, where rationalism and deism had become influential and moved some theologians to a more rational Christianity, the desire of orinary Protestant churchgoers for greater depths of religious experience led to new and dynamic religious movements
  5. I.                   Popular Religion in the 18th Century
    •                                                               i.      Pietism: in Germany was response to desire for a deeper personal devotion to God
    • 1.       Begun in 17th century by group of German clerics who wished their religion to be more personal, Pietism was spread by teachings of Count Nikolaus von Zizendorf
  6. I.                   Popular Religion in the 18th Century
    • a.      To Zizendorf and his Moravian Brethren, as his sect was called, it was the mystical dimensions—the personal experience of God—in one’s life that constituted true religious experience
    • He ewas opposed to what he perceived as the rationalistic approach of orthodox Lutheran clergy, who were being educatied in new “rational” ideas
  7. I.                   Popular Religion in the 18th Century
    After civil wars
    •                                                               i.      After civil wars of 17th c., England had arrived at respectable, uniform, and complacent state church
    • 1.      Anglican Church offered little spiritual excitement
    • a.      Dissenting Protestant groups—Puritans, Quakers, Baptists—were subjued while growth of deism challeneged Christianity itself
  8. I.                   Popular Religion in the 18th Century
    •                                                               i.      Desire for deep spiritual experience seemed unmet until John Wesley
    • b.      Wesley and Methodism
    •                                                               i.      Ordained Anglican minister who experienced mystical experience
    • 1.      :gift of God’s grace” assured him of salvation and led him to become missionary to English, bringing salavation to all, despite being opposed by Anglican Church, which criticized this emotional mysticism or religious enthusiasm as superstition
  9. I.                   Popular Religion in the 18th Century
    Wesley's Ideas about being saved
    •                                                               i.      To hm, all could be saved by experiencing God and opening the doors to his grace
    •                                                             ii.      Took the Gospel to the people, preaching to masses, appealing to lower classes neglected by socially elitist Anglican Church
  10. I.                   Popular Religion in the 18th Century
    Charismatic Preaching
    •                                                               i.      His charismatic preaching often provoked highly charged and even violent conversion experiences
    • Afterward, converts were organized into so-called Methodist societies or chapels in which they could aid each other in doing the good works that Wesley considered a component of salvation
  11. I.                   Popular Religion in the 18th Century
    Methodism and Anglican Church
    •                                                               i.      Sought to keep Methodism within Anglican Church, after his death, it became a separate and independent sect
    •                                                             ii.      Methodism was an important revival of Christianity and proved that the need for spiritual experience had not been expunged by the search for reason