Race & Ethnicity

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Author:
gandalfthegrey
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197271
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Race & Ethnicity
Updated:
2013-02-02 01:27:09
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Cultural Anthropology
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Final Review
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  1. Define race.
    An ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis.
  2. True/False: Race is based on scientific classification of genes. If false, why?
    False. Race is based on presumed contrasts between peoples.
  3. Genetic evidence indicates that most physical variation lies (~94%) lies _______ racial groups rather than ______ them.
    within; between
  4. Eugenics
  5. What are eugenics?
    The hereditary improvement of the human race through selective breeding.
  6. What were some of the methods used to "improve" the human race? (6 methods)
    • Sterilization
    • Abortion
    • Selective breeding
    • Marriage restrictions
    • Segregation
    • Genocide
  7. Brazil's Whitening of Race
  8. How did Brazil attempt to change the racial makeup of their country?
    Through immigration.
  9. They saw ______ as the way to civilization, progress, and superiority, and ________/________ as lazy, inferior barbarians.
    Europeans; Africans/Asians
  10. What is miscegenation?
    Interbreeding.
  11. True/False: There was a belief that weaker races, such as Africans, would vanish if their through miscegenation of their blood with white blood. If false, why?
    True.
  12. Social Race
  13. What does the term social race imply?
    That race is a soci-cultural construction due to the lack of biological basis for classification of humans into differing races.
  14. Social race differs according to what 3 conditions in different countries?
    • Historical
    • Demographic
    • Cultural
  15. What is a phenotype?
    The color of one's skin.
  16. The act of the child of parents from different races being assigned to a minority racial group is known as _______.
    hypodescent
  17. Racial Caste System vs. Racial Class System
  18. In a racial ______, one's race cannot change in one's lifetimes, while in a racial ____ system a change in education, status, or wealth can lead to a change in one's _____.
    caste; class; class
  19. Ethnicity
  20. Define ethnicity.
    Affiliation with a certain ethnic group and exclusion from other ethnic groups because of this affiliation.
  21. An _____ ______ has shared beliefs, values, habits, customs and norms because of a common background.
    ethnic group
  22. What is the biggest difference between the ethnic composition in 2000 and that projected for 2050?
    The minority will be the majority.
  23. What is the most ethnically diverse city in the United States?
    Los Angeles
  24. What percentage of LA's population are monolingual English speakers?
    42%
  25. Groups with autonomous political status (e.g. their own countries) are known as ______.
    nationalities
  26. Dispersed populations that have spread into other areas of the world from a common central homeland are ______.
    diasporas
  27. What is assimilation?
    When minority groups adopt the patterns and norms of a dominant culture.
  28. Plural Society
  29. What is a plural society?
    A society combining ethnic contrasts, ecological specialization (use of different environmental resources, and economic interdependence of these groups.
  30. True/False: Plural societies have ethnic groups who assimilate due to close contact. If false, why?
    False. These groups live peacefully in close contact, but do not assimilate.
  31. When is this most successful?
    If different ethnicities do not compete economically.
  32. Multiculturalism
  33. What is multiculturalism?
    Acceptance of cultural diversity within a country.
  34. True/False: Citizens of the nation are socialized into dominant (national) cultural practices and also minority (ethnic) cultural practices. If false, why?
    True.
  35. Ethnic Conflict
  36. Devaluing a group because of assumed differences in behavior, capabilities, or attribute is known as ______.
    prejudice
  37. What are stereotypes?
    Fixed ideas (often negative) about what members of a group are like.
  38. _________ takes form in policies and practices that harm a particular group and its members.
    Discrimination
  39. De ______ means part of the law, while de _____ means practiced, but not legally.
    jure; facto
  40. What is ethnic expulsion?
    Forcibly removing specific cultural groups from a country because they are different from a dominant group.
  41. Those who are forced to or are voluntarily feeling a country or region are known as ________.
    refugees

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