BMSC 210 Mid1 p4

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Scottygo
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197279
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BMSC 210 Mid1 p4
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2013-02-02 20:38:32
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BMSC 210 Mid1 p4
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BMSC 210 Mid1 p4
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  1. Cell Walls of Archaea
    • - trade peptidoglycan for Pseudomurien
    • -Typically no outer membrane
    • -Cell walls of some Archaea lack pseudomurein
  2. Pseudomurein
    • – Polysaccharide similar to peptidoglycan
    • – Composed of N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetyltalosaminuronic acid (NAG and NATAU)
    • – Found in cell walls of certain methanogenic Archaea
  3. S-Layers
    • – Most common cell wall type among Archaea
    • – Consist of protein or glycoprotein
    • – Paracrystalline structure
  4. Capsules and Slime Layers
    • – Polysaccharide layers
    • -May be thick or thin, rigid or flexible
    • – Assist in attachment to surfaces
    • – Protect against phagocytosis
    • – Resist desiccation
  5. Fimbriae
    • – Filamentous protein structures
    • – Enable organisms to stick to surfaces or form pellicles
  6. Pili
    • – Filamentous protein structures
    • – Typically longer than fimbriae
    • – Assist in surface attachment
    • – Facilitate genetic exchange between cells(conjugation)
    • – Type IV pili involved in twitching motility
  7. Cell Inclusions
    • Carbon storage polymers
    • -Poly--hydroxybutyric acid (PHB)
    • -Glycogen¬†
    • -Polyphosphates
    • -Sulfur globules
    • -Magnetosomes
  8. Poly--hydroxybutyric acid (PHB):
    • lipid
  9. Polyphosphates:
    accumulations of inorganic phosphate
  10. Sulfur globules:
    composed of elemental sulfur
  11. magnetosomes:
    magnetic storage inclusions
  12. Gas Vesicles
    • – Confer buoyancy in planktonic cells
    • – Spindle-shaped, gas-filled structures made ofprotein
    • – Gas vesicle impermeable to water
  13. Endospores
    • – Highly differentiated cells resistant to heat, harsh chemicals, and radiation
    • – “Dormant” stage of bacterial life cycle
    • – Ideal for dispersal via wind, water, or animal gut
    • – Only present in some gram-positive bacteria
  14. sporulation stages
  15. Endospore Structure
    • -Structurally complex
    • – Contains dipicolinic acid
    • – Enriched in Ca2+
    • – Core contains small acid-soluble proteins(SASPs)
  16. 3 locations of spore differentiation
  17. Flagellum (pl. flagella):
    • structure that assistsin swimming
    • – Different arrangements: peritrichous, polar,lophotrichous
    • – Helical in shape
  18. Flagellar Structure
    • – Consists of several components (Figure 3.41)
    • – Filament composed of flagellin
    • – Move by rotation
  19. Flagellar Synthesis
    • – Several genes are required for flagellar synthesis and motility
    • – MS ring made first
    • – Other proteins and hook made next
  20. Flagella increase or decrease rotational speed in relation to strength of the ____________
    proton motive force
  21. Peritrichously flagellated cells
    • move slowly in a straight line
  22. Polarly flagellated cells
    • move more rapidly and typically spin around
  23. Gliding Motility
    • – Flagella-independent motility (Figure 3.46)– Slower and smoother than swimming
    • – Movement typically occurs along long axis of cell– Requires surface contact
    • – Mechanisms
    • • Excretion of polysaccharide slime
    • • Type IV pili
    • • Gliding-specific proteins
  24. Taxis:
    directed movement in response to chemicalor physical gradients
  25. Chemotaxis:
    • response to chemicals
    • – Best studied in E. coli
    • – Bacteria respond to temporal, not spatial,difference in chemical concentration
    • – “Run and tumble” behavior
    • – Attractants and receptors sensed by chemoreceptors
  26. Phototaxis:
    response to light
  27. Aerotaxis:
    response to oxygen
  28. Osmotaxis:
    response to ionic strength
  29. Hydrotaxis:
    response to water
  30. Measuring Chemotaxis
    • -Measured by inserting a capillary tube containing an attractant or a repellent in amedium of motile bacteria
    • -Can also be seen under a microscope

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