Bmsc 210 Mid1 p5

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Bmsc 210 Mid1 p5
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2013-02-03 01:10:19
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Bmsc 210 Mid1 p5
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Bmsc 210 Mid1 p5
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  1. Metabolism
    – The sum total of all chemical reactions that occurin a cell
  2. Catabolic reactions (catabolism)
     – Energy-releasing metabolic reactions
  3. Anabolic reactions (anabolism)
    – Energy-requiring metabolic reactions
  4. Nutrients
    – Supply of monomers (or precursors of)required by cells for growth
  5. • Carbon
    • – Required by all cells
    • – Typical bacterial cell ~50% carbon (by dry weight)
    • – Major element in all classes of macromolecules
  6. – Heterotrophs use_____ carbon
    organic
  7. – Autotrophs use _____ carbon
    inorganic
  8. Nitrogen
    • – Typical bacterial cell ~12% nitrogen(by dry weight)
    • – Key element in proteins, nucleic acids, andmany more cell constituents
  9. Phosphorus (P)
    • • Synthesis of nucleic acids and phospholipids
    • -Macronutrients
  10. Sulfur (S)
    • • Sulfur-containing amino acids (cysteine andmethionine)
    • • Vitamins (e.g., thiamine, biotin, lipoic acid) and coenzyme A
    • -Macromolecule
  11. Potassium (K)
    • • Required by enzymes for activity
    • • Also used as a compatible solute by many bacteria
    • -Macronutrient
  12. Magnesium (Mg)
    • • Stabilizes ribosomes, membranes, and nucleic acids
    • • Also required for many enzymes
    • -Macromolecule
  13. Calcium (Ca)
    • • Helps stabilize cell walls in microbes
    • • Plays key role in heat stability of endospores
    • -Macromolecule
  14. Sodium (Na)
    •  • Required by some microbes (e.g., marinemicrobes)
    • -Macromolecule
  15. Iron
    • – Key component of cytochromes and FeS proteins involved in electron transport
    • – Cells produce siderophores (iron-binding agents) to obtain iron from insoluble mineral form (Figure 4.2)
  16. Ferrous Iron
    • Fe2+
    • -Generally formed under anoxic conditions
    • -soluble
    • (2 of us)
  17. Ferric iron
    • Fe3+
    • -Generally formed under oxic conditions
    • -exists as insoluble mineral
  18. Growth Factors
    • – Organic compounds required in small amounts by certain organisms
    • • Examples: vitamins, amino acids, purines, pyrimidines
  19. Vitamins
    • • Most commonly required growth factors
    • • Most function as coenyzmes
  20. Culture Media
    • – Nutrient solutions used to grow microbes inthe laboratory
    • Two broad classes:
    • Defined media
    • Complex media
  21. Defined media:
    precise chemical composition is known
  22. Complex media:
    composed of digests of chemically undefined substances (e.g., yeastand meat extracts.
  23. Pure culture:
    culture containing only a single kind of microbe
  24. Contaminants:
    unwanted organisms in a culture
  25. Cultures prepared on solid media
    • -Solid media are prepared by addition of a gelling agent (agar or gelatin)
    • – When grown on solid media, cells form isolated masses (colonies)
  26. redox reactions
    • is used in synthesis of energy-rich compounds (e.g., ATP)
    • -Redox reactions occur in pairs (two half reactions-donar and acceptor(redoxcouple);
    • -Reduced substance of a redox couple with a more negative E0′ donates electrons to the oxidized substance of a redox couple with a more positive E0′
  27. Electron donor:
    the substance oxidized in a redox reaction
  28. Electron acceptor:
    the substance reduced in a redox reaction
  29. Reduction potential (E0′):
    tendency to donate electrons – Expressed as volts (V). the more negative E0' donates
  30. Redox tower
    • -represents the range of possible reduction potentials
    • • The reduced substance at the top of the tower donates electrons (is oxidized)
    • • The oxidized substance at the bottom of the tower accepts electrons(is reduced)
    • • The farther the electrons “drop,” the greater the amount of energy released
  31. Electron carriers (2 classes)
    • -intermediates involved in Redox reactions
    • -Electron carriers are divided into two classes
    • – Prosthetic groups (attached to enzymes- not diffusable ex: heme,FeS)
    • – Coenzymes (diffusible)
    • • Examples: NAD+, NADP (Figure 4.10 )
  32. redox reaction energy storage (4 options)
    • Primarily:
    • – ATP; the prime energy currency
    • – Phosphoenolpyruvate
    • – Glucose 6-phosphate
    • • Chemical energy also stored in coenzyme A

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