Energy Balance and Weight Management: Finding Your Equilibrium
What is a psychological desire to eat that is related to the pleasant sensations often associated with food?
What is obesity characterized by body weight exceeding 100 percent of normal; a condition so severe it often requires surgery?
What is the waist measurement; as a marker of abdominal fat content, it can be used to indicate health risks?
What is the balance in the body between amounts of energy consumed and expended?
What is a hormone produced by adipose cells that signals the amount of body fat content and influences food intake?
What are periods of absence of breathing during sleep?
What is excess storage of fat located primarily in the buttocks and thighs. Also called gynecoid obesity?
What is the internal, physiological drive to find and consume food. Unlike appetite, this is often experienced as a negative sensation, often manifesting as an uneasy or painful sensation. The recurrent and involuntary lack of access to food that may produce malnutrition over time?
What is body weight (in kilograms) divided by the square of height (in meters), expressed in units of kg/m2?
body mass index (BMI)
What is any human-formed, developed, or structured areas, including the urban environment that consists of buildings, roads, fixtures, parks, and all other human developments that form its physical character?
What is the caloric or energy content of food provided by the sources of dietary energy: carbohydrate (4 kcal/g), protein (4 kcal/g), fat (9 kcal/g), and alcohol (7 kcal/g)?
What is a clinical measure of resting energy expenditure performed upon awakening, 10 to 12 hours after eating, and 12 to 18 hours after significant physical activity. Often used interchangeably with RMR?
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
What is a balance of energy intake and output that results in little or no change in weight over time?
What is excess storage of fat located primarily in the abdominal area?
What is the use of calories or energy for basic body functions, physical activity, and processing of consumed foods?
What is mental or verbal statements made to one’s self that reinforce negative or destructive self-perceptions?
What is the pattern of fat distribution on the body?
body fat distribution
What is the portion of the body exclusive of stored fat, including muscle, bone, connective tissue, organs, and water?
lean body mass
What is the total of the Basal Energy Expenditure (BEE), energy used in physical activity, and energy used in processing food (TEF); usually expressed in kilocalories per day?
total energy expenditure (TEE)
What is an internal cue which tells you when you have had enough to eat?
What is the absence of all metabolic and biochemical risk factors associated with obesity?
What is a method to estimate body fat by measuring with calipers the thickness of a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat?
What is an internal cue which represents the length of time that satiation lasts and generally tells you when you are ready to eat again?
What is a behavioral model that includes the external and internal events that precede and follow the behavior. This involves antecedents and the events that precede the behavior, followed by consequences that positively or negatively reinforce the behavior?
ABC model of behavior
Constructive mental or verbal statements made to one’s self to change a belief or behavior are called what?
What is a device used to measure the density of the body based on the volume of air displaced as a person sits in a sealed chamber of known volume?
A person is underweight if he or she has a BMI less than what?
Obesity due to an above-average number of fat cells is called what? hypercellular obesity.
What kind of eaters are individuals who routinely consume a very large amount of food in a brief period of time (e.g., two hours) and lose control over how much and what is eaten?
Individuals who routinely avoid food as long as possible and then gorge on food are called?
The output of energy associated with fidgeting, maintenance of posture, and other minimal physical exertions is called?
nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)
A person is overweight if his or her BMI is at or above what? and less then what?
25 kg/m2 and less than 30 kg/m2
Obesity due to an increase in both the size and number of fat cells is called what?
hyperplasia (hyperplastic obesity)
What is the neurotransmitter widely distributed throughout the brain and peripheral nervous tissue. Its activity has been linked to eating behavior, depression, anxiety, and cardiovascular function?
Neuropeptide Y (NPY)
What are repeated periods of gaining and losing weight is called?
What occurs when energy intake is lower than energy expenditure, resulting in a depletion of body energy stores and weight loss?
Negative energy balance
What is a clinical measure of resting energy expenditure performed three to four hours after eating or performing significant physical activity?
Resting metabolic rate (RMR)
What is a technique used to estimate amounts of total body water, lean tissue mass, and total body fat. It uses the resistance of tissue to the flow of an alternating electric current?
Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)
Obesity occurs when a person has a BMI at or above what?
Obesity due to an increase in the size of fat cells is called?
What hormone is produced by the stomach that stimulates feeding by increasing release of neuropeptide Y?
Normal weight is defined as having a BMI at or above what? and less than what?
18.5 kg/m2 and less than 25 kg/m2.
Diets supplying 400 to 800 kilocalories per day that include adequate high-quality protein, little or no fat, and little carbohydrate are called what?
very-low-calorie diets (VLCD)
Determining body density by measuring the volume of water displaced when the body is fully submerged in a specialized water tank is called what?
hydrostatic (underwater) weighing.
what is the energy used to digest, absorb, and metabolize energy-yielding foodstuffs?
The thermic effect of food (TEF)
What occurs when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure, resulting in an increase in body energy stores and weight gain?
Positive energy balance
What is the chemical or anatomical composition of the body. It is commonly defined as the proportions of fat, muscle, bone, and other tissues in the body?